Thursday, November 28, 2019
Summary This paper looks at the human resource management strategies adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the various competing organizational pressures. It also looks at the organizational, sectoral, national and international contexts that affect the Human Resource Management policies and practices of the organization.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management report specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO), which was developed in 1948, is an organization within the United Nations that coordinates on the various aspects of public health across the world. Its headquarters are situated at Geneva, Switzerland. WHO took over from the Health Organization which was in the League of Nations. The main mandate of the World Health Organization is to ensure that all people are as healthy as possible. It therefore does this by controlling some of the d iseases that are easily infected and they include malaria, TB and H.I.V/AIDS and come up with other programs that actually treat or provide preventive measures against those diseases. Preventive measures include use of vaccines whose effectiveness has been guaranteed. Use of condoms has also been encouraged by the organization so as to prevent the deadly HIV/AIDS. WHO is well known for its success in the complete eradication of the smallpox in 1980. Polio is currently in its list and is to be eradicated in the coming few years. The World Health Organization employs and encourages its Members to use evidence-based strategies such as the use of data collection in health surveys in there health policy structure. The WHO normally prints out the World Health Report that provide information on some of the issues to do with health globally. The organisation has also developed strategies to assess the capacity of the systems and the workers so as to ensure that it meets goals of attaining g ood health for the nations. WHO is also involved in conducting campaigns that may help raise awareness of some of the health hazards such as the smoking of cigarettes that contain tobacco which pose threat to human health. It also encourages the consumption of certain foods such as vegetables and fruits which promote health. World Health Organization conducts research on health issues and tackles some diseases that are of global concern. It has also developed networks that ensure that information on research done on health issues can be accessed in the third world countries. The organization obtains its funds from contributions from local governments, Non-organizational organizations and private sectors of its members and through donations. The WHO has developed partnerships with other bodies in doing its work and now has at least eighty partnerships.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Lea rn More The World Health Organization has a personnel policy which is similar to that of other United Nations agencies. Recently, the organization prohibited the recruitment of smokers to be part of staff so as to promote its integrity on having an environment free of tobacco. This principle was also adopted by other one hundred and sixty eight countries in 2003 and actually signed a convention that controlled the use of tobacco. Methodology This paper will use the World Health Organization (WHO) as a case study and its human resource strategies and policies will be looked at critically so as to analyze the various components of human resource management policy and practice which include recruitment and selection of staff, training, Human Resource Development, employment relations, employee participation and rewarding systems. The various challenges faced will be looked at and recommendations will be made. Secondary sources of data collection will be used and will include books an d internet information about the organization in question. WHOÃ¢â¬â¢s HR strategies and policies At the moment, the World Health Organization has estimated the number of the total health workers to hit the 59.2 million. Two thirds of the estimated number constitutes those that provide health services and the rest are management and subordinate staff (World Health Report, 2006). It has been identified that problems that face the health sector revolve around politics and the culture of a given country. The economic status and the type of health systems employed also may cause problems in the health sector. In order to combat these problems, various factors can be considered. Inputting funds in the sector can help tackle some issues. Changing the training programs can also work towards solving some of the problems faced in the health sector. Improving data accessibility and the working conditions in the sector can be huge change effectors. The above factors are however not directly c ontrolled by the Human Resource for Health (HRH) policy makers. It has therefore been hypothesised that, for countries to implement their Human Resource for health policies, it must make its strategies to be compatible with the reforms of that country and also to utilize processes based on sound data in making of policies.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management report specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Global Health Workforce Strategy Group (GHWSG) was initiated by the World Health Organization in 2000. It was established so as to assist in the job of bettering the performance of the health workers. The various groups made discussions via videoconferencing. The workshop attended by the GHWSG was aimed at informing other stakeholders and ensure their full participation in finding the important areas that would make-better the HRH policy. The Global Health Workforce Strategy workshop was a bi g step in the attempt to curtail the human resource issues faced globally and ensuring sustainability in human resource for health. The issues to do with health workers and human resource for health are among the most challenging areas to change in especially for countries that are aiming at improving the health sector and its systems. WHO came up with certain strategies to aid in sustainability in human resource for health. This includes developing ways of performing impact assessment for the human resource and induces human resource activities in other parts of the policy. This involves the incorporation of mechanisms that aid countries in performing impact assessment on the initiatives that are suggested for the health sector that affect the workers. WHO advocates for the developing of competent staff through encouraging further training and education. This involves the use of experts in the field to integrate and apply necessary knowledge mechanisms. WHO also advocates for human resource and encourages for networks to be created by raising the awareness among its stakeholders. One way in which this is done is through the development of web sites that provide the necessary information. HRM policy and practice The World Health Organization usually recruit workforce on either permanent terms or temporarily by offering contracts and are put into two broad categories; either General Service staff and professionals abbreviated as G and P respectively.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The professional workers are obtained internationally and hold senior management positions. They are therefore required to have high levels of training and expertise. The professionals are required to be flexible in terms of their working environments since they can be deployed for service at any part of the globe. The general service staff (G) however are recruited locally and placed at respective stations where they are expected to work. Their main work is that of assisting the professional staff so as to ensure that there is smooth running of the activities. National Professional Officers work in their come from and do their job in a professional manner. They are required to work in the country of origin since they require knowledge and experience of their country. One of the requirements for one to qualify for the professional position at the WHO includes having a degree from the university and having pursued a postgraduate course that is management or health-related. Some relev ant amount of experience in the area is required at global level. The candidate must possess knowledge on policy issues and public health. Another additional requirement is the proficiency in a second language apart from English. The WHO observes certain principles during recruitment and this includes maintaining diversity of staff in the organization and obtaining representatives in each member state. Only qualified staff is recruited and gender balance is assured. Some restrictions are however observed during recruitment and this includes age restrictions. People of the ages below 20 and 62 do not qualify for recruitment. The policy against smokers disqualifies tobacco smokers in the recruitment process. WHO considers tobacco as a killer and takes away approximately 5 million people per year while this many cases of death are very preventable. As for members of staff who smoke, WHO encourages them to quit and provide them with assistance on how to quit. The organization has develo ped several strategies to increase awareness about the organization and the employment opportunities available there so as to attract potential workforce from all over the world. Another method employed is the use of the missions in Geneva to look for potential candidate from various institutions and other organizations that participate in health-related stuff. Another strategy yet is the use of e-mails in disseminating of the information. The WHO sent e-mails to its collaborators so as locate its potential candidates. The WHO is involved in conducting quality assessments and quality assurance so as to ensure that the members of staff are competent and provide quality service to the organization. Assessment is done on individuals and groups so as to check for team work. Quality assessment is essential so as to attain quality assurance by an organization (Bandaranayake, 2000). A World Health Organization report on activities done in South-East Asia to check on quality of its services on blood transfusion showed that they were at various levels in development when compared with other states. Thailand, for example is ISO certified due to its excellent systems. Some countries do not attain this level of quality assurance despite having good infrastructure in form of qualified personnel, quality and funds. This is mainly because of the lack of full support of the government in the sector and many changes that occur in the government (Bandaranayake, 2000). The World Health Organization however acknowledges that there are factors beyond control that prevent assurance of quality service by the country and these includes factors such as climate change, factors that impede communication, infrastructure and political influence. In an attempt to explain this, a report on the laboratory services at Maldives was considered. One of the reasons that were identified as the reasons for the low quality of service were the difficulties faced during the transportation process. Ano ther reason was the fact that some of the slides and reagents that were being used for the laboratory activities had actually expired. The WHO uses staff appraisal as part of its practices so as to ensure achievement of its goals and objectives. It has however been argued that staff appraisal has more effect on staff behaviour than the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance (Martinez, 2000). For a long time, appraisal of staff had only to do with relationship between a manager (head) and the individual being appraised and therefore the individual hardly ever knew of it as it was kept from him. As much as it is advisable to maintain interactions at personal levels, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that there will be incorporation between the person and the goals of the organization. The World Health Organization supports and encourages the use of teamwork in the performance of its activities. The WHO ensures staff development through offering rewards to its workers both at individual an d team levels. It has been proven that rewards contribute greatly in the performance of an organization and there are cases recorded where there was no evidence of enhancement of performance until a form of reward system was adopted (Martinez, 2000). Many writers have however argued out that a integration of a number of incentives-both positive and negative-to either commend a staff member for impressive performance or to punish and discourage staff that perform poorly. Several studies have specifically looked at the relationship that exists between human resources and the reforms that have been developed concerning health. Most have just looked at the way the reforms have changed the mode of interaction among health workforce within the place of work but only a small number of the researchers have actually looked at how the workers themselves affect the reforms. These reforms have changed various important aspects of the health workers. These changes include the level of decentrali zation of areas of management, the working conditions, the level of skills needed for one to be recruited and the issues to do with incentives and payments. The health workers have now on many occasions presented their ideas and have had their voices heard and therefore have had the opportunity to air their views on the various aspects of management (Dussault and Rigoli, 2003). This evidences show the extent to which the workforce in the health sector-whether as individually or as a collection-have had in the changing of the reforms and therefore ensuring success in the participation of the staff (staff involvement). This provides a tool that can be used to predict the way in which the workforce can react to emerging issues to do with reforms. Competing organizational pressures Some of the challenges facing the World Health Organization in its mandate of promoting health throughout the globe include the acute shortage of trained health workers. This shortage has been caused due to v arious factors which include the moving out of people to other developed countries hence reducing their numbers. The other reason include the under production of the workers in the health sector and the difficulty in paying high salaries and allowances to health workers and hence the difficulty in sustaining them in the respective countries. Some factors that are unavoidable such as illness and death of staff also contribute the acute shortage of the workers (Brito and Novick, 2000). OÃ¢â¬â¢Neil (2008) confirmed that the major deficiency in all health systems is the presence of Human Resource managers and qualified specialists who can stand in the way of the challenges that face the health sector. Some managers and leadership figures in the health sector have complained of being forced to comply with some dictatorial rules laid by the civil service that impede their performance. The presence of self-centred and disunified Human resource management systems and the inappropriate uti lization of the health workforce is also a great challenge that faces WHO. Managers in many states acknowledge that the leadership force to combat these issues are lacking. Human resource management systems in the health sector are not usually centralized and the different authorities in charge of planning, incentive, promotions and the other human resource activities being assigned to different ministries in stead of a single body. Another challenge facing the WHO is the difficulty in securing equal job opportunities in the health sector for women. There is also a difficulty in motivating staff and ensuring high performance in the health sector through the utilization of incentives that involve pay or non-pay strategies. This includes providing opportunities for further learning to its staff and also opportunities to further develop their careers (WHO, 2000). Conclusion The world Health Organization is an important organization because of its task of ensuring that there is almost p erfect health for all the people within its member countries. It has been known to uphold its integrity in its policies and has been on the race in the attempt to raise awareness on such dangers as the use of tobacco cigarettes which is a killer and has claimed millions of lives. By ensuring a tobacco free environment, the WHO passes a strong message against the use of tobacco and in the process raise awareness on its dangers. The WHO adopts transparency in its method of recruiting staff and in the process maintains highly skilled staff members that ensure that the goals and objectives of the organization are obtained. The process of advertising for vacant posts within the organization ensures that many different states are alerted and the most qualified potential candidates only are given the opportunity to show their competence and skills. In this way it displays its corruption free nature and wins the trust of many who are looking forward to working for the organization or consid ering it the first choice when it comes to health issues. Since the World Health organization recruits both male and female candidates in organization, it promotes equity and help to shape the mentality and the perception that women are less useful to the society and in the process acts as a role model to the many organizations that have not been able to attain this level of equity in the selection of staff. This also helps promote the girl-child education especially in the third world (developing) countries. The world Health organization also appreciates its well performing staff by offering rewards and therefore motivates them and provides a good working environment and working conditions with its staff. The offering of disincentives to the poorer performing staff also helps them realize their weaknesses and through the help of management and other leaders in the organization, they would be able to rectify their misdeeds and ensure a bright future for the organization and its staf f. This also helps in establishing good relationships between the management and the staff and therefore creating a good environment for the workers and in the long run lead to the overall success of the organization. Recommendations Since the World Health organization faces some challenges which include having deficiencies in staff numbers due to insufficient salaries and allowances offered to them by their countries, I would recommend that the WHO should partner with its other member states and form a baseline to which all staff occupying the same position in the organization should the same amount of pay irrespective to the country the person is working for. Since some management figures in the health sector complain of being influenced negatively by political influence and being forced to comply with some law requirements that are set by the civil service, I would recommend that the WHO be made to be an independent body so that it can function independently from the political bo dies within the country and therefore attain its goals and objectives much easily. Human resource management systems in the health sector should centralized so that all activities are run by one centralized body instead of many group of bodies that may limit of success of the WHO. So as to combat the problem of shortage of trained staff, the WHO should set aside more of its funds on training staff rather than spending a lot of its funds of purchasing medicines that are to be administered to people and yet there are no people to administer it. References Bandaranayake, D. (2001) Assessing performance management of human resources for health in South-East Asian countries. Aspects of quality and outcome. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/hrh/en/Assessing_performance.pdf Black, C. (2011) WHO Employment: Who We need. World Health Organisation. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/careers/en/ Brito, G. and Novick, M. (2000) Labour relations, employment conditions and participation in the h ealth sector. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/hrh/documents/en/Labour_relations.pdf Dussault, G. and Rigoli, F. (2003) The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health. [online]. Available fromÃ https://human-resources-health.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1478-4491-1-9 . Martinez, J. (2001) Assessing quality, outcome and performance management. London, The Institute for Health Sector Development. OÃ¢â¬â¢Neil, L. M. (2008) Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health. Cambridge, Human resource for health. WHO (2000) Workshop on global health workforce strategy. Web. This report on Human Resource Management report was written and submitted by user Samantha Hodge to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Poe and Perverseness An extremely common state of mind known as perverseness is, quite possibly, the strongest driving force in Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s, The Black Cat. In every one of us, although not so strong, there is a sense of stubbornness or perverseness. However, our stubbornness, such as, we must eat at a certain restaurant or wear a certain color of shirt is of a totally different type. The perverseness in the narrator of this story is a type that could put someone in prison for the rest of his or her life. When a person has gone through as many trials and hard times in a single lifetime, the possibility of mental issues is much more prevalent. Many of the occurrences in PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s stories cannot be understood without knowledge of his real-life background. The life of Edgar Poe began in 1809. Throughout his young life he was a model student and athlete. He excelled in school with little or no effort and was a record holder in the long jump. After losing his mother and step-mother to tuberculosis he began attending the, newly found, University of Virginia. However, his troubles did not end there. Soon after arriving, he created a severe debt for himself through gambling and was on the verge of poverty. Being forced to leave the University, he moved in with his aunt Maria Clemm. Not knowing it, he would here find the love of his life; Virginia Clemm. Virginia Clemm, however, was his cousin. Though that was socially acceptable at the time. After ten years of marriage he would finally lose her to tuberculosis. This tragedy then sent him into a spiraling state of depression (Poe, The MysteryÃ¢â¬ ¦). One occurrence at the end of the story somehow sticks out. Poe states, Ã¢â¬Å"I rapped heavily, with a cane which I held in my hand, upon that very portion of the brick-work behind which stood the corpse of the wife of my bosom (Poe, The Black Cat).Ã¢â¬ This statement can be translated in one of two ways: as a mark of arroganc... Free Essays on Poe And Perverseness Free Essays on Poe And Perverseness Poe and Perverseness An extremely common state of mind known as perverseness is, quite possibly, the strongest driving force in Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s, The Black Cat. In every one of us, although not so strong, there is a sense of stubbornness or perverseness. However, our stubbornness, such as, we must eat at a certain restaurant or wear a certain color of shirt is of a totally different type. The perverseness in the narrator of this story is a type that could put someone in prison for the rest of his or her life. When a person has gone through as many trials and hard times in a single lifetime, the possibility of mental issues is much more prevalent. Many of the occurrences in PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s stories cannot be understood without knowledge of his real-life background. The life of Edgar Poe began in 1809. Throughout his young life he was a model student and athlete. He excelled in school with little or no effort and was a record holder in the long jump. After losing his mother and step-mother to tuberculosis he began attending the, newly found, University of Virginia. However, his troubles did not end there. Soon after arriving, he created a severe debt for himself through gambling and was on the verge of poverty. Being forced to leave the University, he moved in with his aunt Maria Clemm. Not knowing it, he would here find the love of his life; Virginia Clemm. Virginia Clemm, however, was his cousin. Though that was socially acceptable at the time. After ten years of marriage he would finally lose her to tuberculosis. This tragedy then sent him into a spiraling state of depression (Poe, The MysteryÃ¢â¬ ¦). One occurrence at the end of the story somehow sticks out. Poe states, Ã¢â¬Å"I rapped heavily, with a cane which I held in my hand, upon that very portion of the brick-work behind which stood the corpse of the wife of my bosom (Poe, The Black Cat).Ã¢â¬ This statement can be translated in one of two ways: as a mark of arroganc...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Ethical Dilemmas - Case Study Example Valerie Young took the decision because of her dilemma related to the harm or consequences of whistleblowing. According to the Ã¢â¬ËUtilitarian PrincipleÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Ã¢â¬ËBalanced Interests PrinciplesÃ¢â¬â¢, Valerie Young seemed to consider that after the completion of her educational course, the consequences will be minimized or rather she would have greater opportunity to face the challenges occurred after her whistleblowing. She was also concerned about the effects of her whistleblowing on her team members and to the organization as a whole which would also be reduced by the period. This reflects her concern to the benefit of the highest numbers which again depicts her ethical dilemmas to be partially influenced by the Ã¢â¬ËUtilitarian PrincipleÃ¢â¬â¢ (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007). Valerie Young was also facing stress in terms of ethical dilemmas regarding the unethical behavior of her boss and the probable consequence which he might be facing after she blows the whistl e. She also considered the possible measures to be undertaken by the organizational leaders regarding the fact, when it was unambiguously mentioned in the company policies that any kind of bribery or unethical practices illustrating kickbacks would not be entertained. However, while considering the facts, Valerie Young proved to be equitable. That is, she tended to be focused on the equitable characteristics of her boss, rather than his arbitrary characteristics, such as gender, age and others. Thus, it is quite apparent that the ethical dilemmas faced by Valerie Young also depicted her consideration to the Ã¢â¬ËDistributive Justice PrincipleÃ¢â¬â¢ as her Ã¢â¬ËConcern for Other PrinciplesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007). 2.0. If You Were Valerie, What Would You Do? Ethical decision making of an individual largely depends... Ethical decision making of an individual largely depends upon the principles identified in the previous discussion of the paper. In this case, Valerie Young can be observed to undergo a few ethical dilemmas which are often termed to be a common reflection of human conscience while facing ethical challenges. Considering the above described ethical principles which are considered by individuals during their decision making regarding whistleblowing, it can be stated that Valerie YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were quite logical. However, the steps taken were not entirely ethical as it hampered the sustainability of the organisation and also affected the work culture to a large extent. Moreover, her prime focus was not to disturb her personal interests despite her awareness regarding the probable consequences to be faced by the organization, which again reflected an unethical behavior from Valerie YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s end. Therefore, in this case both Valerie YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s boss, Mr. Lionel WatersÃ¢â ¬â¢ and Valerie YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior can be recognized as unethical from the organizational perspective (Dench, 2006). Instead of securing the secrets to herself, Valerie Young could have conveyed it to the higher authorities of the company. As a marketing manager she had the liberty to convey any of her problems to the senior members of the organization. In this case, she could have utilized her right to convey the matter to the members of the board.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Walt Disney Hall - Essay Example Later that year after enough sourcing for resources, the construction took off again. What lead after that proved a disaster for the dedication of the Walt Disney himself. However, there was a complete turn of events where when the budget far exceeded the available resources. Nevertheless, there was a move to use cheaper material rather than using the originally planned bricks, but it later proved to be a blessing in disguise which prompted to the reputation of the Los AngelesÃ¢â¬â¢ marvel. This was because the stainless steel move was a better match for GheryÃ¢â¬â¢s architectural plan for the hall. This move saw the completion of the project in the latter months of 2003. There were substantial costs accredited mainly to the parking garage itself which cost $110 million, escalating the total cost including the floors of the entire construction to $274 million. Materials and Description of Architectural and Construction Form Gehry adopts to his childhood experiences to make differ ent architectural designs for the building, using 12500 unique pieces of steel each having sole characteristics. He also uses a variety of standard bricks to go along the regular formed parts of the architectural design. For the main auditorium he uses a type of fir wood to make the floors, walls and the ceilings. This is the same type of wood used in making violas, making them appropriate for making the site for presenting such performances. For the restaurant he uses mostly clear glass to allow enough lighting to bring in the warm and accommodating qualities of a restaurant. Through this he tries to make the transition to psychological and imaginative effect on architecture. Ownership The Walt Disney Hall is primarily owned by the widowed Lillian Disney after her major contributions to the construction. Her contribution was later topped by another contributor to the construction, who was the Walt Disney Company. The company contributed about $25 million. Additionally, the Walt Dis ney family made private contributions to the project amounting to an estimated $85 million. This is evidence that the ownership of the Walt building is not well defined, but its stakeholders in shareholding comprises a number of private entities individuals and companies that made their contribution to the construction of the building. However, it is safe to stipulate that the primary owners are the Walt Disney Company, Lillian Disney and the entire Walt Disney family. According to Bell, the owners of the Walt hall are mainly business people and profit making organizations who have wanted to proceed with the dedication started by Lillian, and not just for the purpose of making profit. The building however has a variety of functions held at the venue, ranging from orchestral performances, musical performances, moviesÃ¢â¬â¢ premiering featuring in many television series episodes and movie features. Much of the maintenance of the building is done with the proceeds from the sale of th e tickets of which usually, most of it goes to serve in the Walt Disney foundation. Functions of the Hall The Walt Hall first performance was held in 2003 during the acoustics, Daphnis and ChloeÃ¢â¬â¢s acoustic performance which set the way for other grand performances, performing the Sonic LA, Sound Stage and Living LA. This paved way for other prime performances to follow in the wake of a new concert hall for Los
Monday, November 18, 2019
Business Environment Analysis of British Airways - Assignment Example (BA) using a brief description of its mission, vision along with its long and short-term business objectives. The discussion would also focus on describing the extent to which BA addresses different objectives of the stakeholders and explain the key responsibilities of the organisation towards implementing strategies to accomplish them. Moreover, the aim of the assignment is also to understand the nature of the national environment in which BA operates, by evaluating economic system and assessing impact of the fiscal, monetary policy along with competition and regulatory mechanism on BA to achieve its business objectives. In addition, the assignment also tends to explain the current market structure of the airline industry of the UK and reveal how it determines the pricing and output decision on different airline activities of BA. Finally, the assignment will focus on the significance of key global factors that have major influence on the UK business organisations and how they shape the national business activities of BA. Founded in the year 1974, BA has long been witnessed as one of the highly reputed organisations in the global airline business industry. The organisation performs its continuous development through different unprecedented conditions of the global airline industry. In relation to the current business performance, the key purpose of BA is to maintain continuous focus on its strategy of being renowned as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading premium airline company (British Airways Plc., 2010). The mission statement of BA significantly defines delivering of effective airline services by acting responsibly to ensure better customers experience with adequate safety and confidence while flying to their respective destinations. With due regards to the mission statement of BA, providing adequate safety along with increasing confidence of the customers is the utmost factor
Friday, November 15, 2019
Witchcraft And Demonology In Europe The witch-hunts were one of the most important events in the history of early modern Europe, taking place from the mid-15th century and ending in the mid-18th century. The view of witchcraft evolved throughout the period, with the Canon Episcopi calling the belief in witches a heresy, to Pope Innocent VIII issuing a bull in 1484 to denounce the practice of witchcraft as a heresy all in a span of about 500 years. On the topic of witchcraft, it is unavoidable that the issue of gender would be discussed. The central question of this report would be how historians account for the persecution of more women than men in the witch-hunts in early modern Europe. The report will first outline the stereotype of a witch and discuss how this stereotype was promulgated. It will be concerned with two possible explanations that attempt to account for the persecution of more women than men firstly, how the persecutions may be a results of a misogynistic and patriarchal culture, and secondly, how the hunts may be been a result of the lack of tolerance for social deviance of women. The Stereotype Of A Witch A collection of statistics indicate that a majority of accused witches were women, with most estimates pointing to about 80% of all victims being women (Ross, 1995: 334). Levack (1987: 142) provides a list of statistics indicating that in most regions in Europe, about three-quarters of the accused were women, with the figures being 90% in regions in Poland and England. Very evidently, the predominant notion of a witch is that it is foremost a woman. In discussing the stereotype of a witch it is difficult not to make reference to the cumulative concept of witchcraft (Levack, 1987: 32-51), which points to certain factors that would help in the identification of a witch. These include a witchs association with the Devil, the pact with the Devil, the Sabbath, nightflying and metamorphosis. Reginald Scot in 1584 described witches as women who were Ã¢â¬Å"commonly old, lame, blearie-eied, pale, fowle, and full of wrinkles, poore, sullen, and superstitiousÃ¢â¬ . This stereotype was promulgated by both genders. Women in early modern Europe were viewed as the weaker gender that was dependent on men in many ways, including for livelihood (Larner, 1984:86). Since the society was heavily patriarchal, women who did not fit in to the mould of a normal woman threatened the idea of females behaving in a particular manner. These women were nonconformists, and therefore put the livelihoods of other women at risk. Hence, they were ostracised by normal women. In behaving in a manner that was different, these women also threatened male domination and therefore had to be condemned by men. Both genders fed the idea that a woman who looked and behaved in a certain manner was a witch, hence allowing the stereotype to persist and spread. In addition, the stereotype of a domestic witch could have been said to be reinforced by a vicious cycle. This is evident in some cases, such as in that of Anna Schwayhofer, who confessed to stealing the Consecrated Host but still bothered to sweep up the crumbs after she had done so (Barry, Hester and Roberts, 1996: 230). The association of witches and broomsticks or distaffs used for spinning also fed the stereotype. Women were mostly restricted to the confines of their allotted spaces, and those practicing harmful magic would most likely be found in those spaces (BlÃ ©court, 2000: 303). Hence, it was not surprising that witchcraft was associated with the women and their domestic activities. Gendered Witchcraft And Misogyny The elite perception of women pointed to how they tended to be intellectually weaker than men, yet have more insatiable sexual appetites and a higher tendency to pursue the occult, a view propounded by 16th century friar Martin de CastaÃ ±ega and in the Malleus itself by Kramer and Sprenger. Hence, historical literature tended to point towards how women were the more inferior of the two genders, and therefore had the larger propensity to be driven towards becoming a witch. Without a doubt, the society in Europe at that point of time was one that was highly patriarchal in nature (Hufton, 1983, 125-141). While the society was essentially patriarchal in nature, there are arguments as to whether this can be extended to be characterised as being misogynistic. Anderson and Gordon (1978) point to the innate inferiority that women possessed in the eyes of the Roman Catholic Church, the dominant religious authority in that time, saying that the Church saw women as more Ã¢â¬Å"amenable to the allures of SatanÃ¢â¬ (Anderson and Gordon, 1978: 174). The paper also highlights the role of the Malleus Maleficarum (1486), that was anti-feminist and very popular, reprinting fourteen editions. The Malleus essentially highlights women as creatures possessing insatiable lust, yet not having the strength of mind to counter the temptations of the Devil. However, statistics also show that women were not the only ones who were victims of the witch-hunts. In several regions, men were the ones who were heavily persecuted instead. Regions such as Finland show a relatively even number of male and female persecutions, while in areas such as Normandy and Iceland, the number of accused male witches far exceeded the number of female ones. This clearly shows that if there had been a culture of misogyny, it was not uniformed throughout Europe. Monter (1964: 563) points out that the stereotypical witch in the French province of Normandy was not a poor, old woman, but a shepherd who may be a youth or an old man. Similarly, in Iceland, only 8% of all the accused witches were women (Levack, 1987: 142). The analysis and discussion of these statistics seem to point to the fact that there were differences in societal perspectives towards women and the differences in questioning techniques (Monter, 1964: 588). Monter (1964: 589) suggests that women wer e treated with leniency during the trial, and some were kept in prison alive for interrogation, even while the men were being executed. The reasons behind why men were more persecuted in some societies and women in others are unclear, but most historians point to the fact that it was impossible to pinpoint a particular reason in every society why this was so. Much of the reasons behind the gender imbalances must be attributed to the culture and views of the society itself, but what can be certain is that the witch-hunt was not strictly gender-specific. Without a doubt, a society that places emphasis on patriarchal values cannot be dismissed as misogynistic simply based on statistics alone. At this point it is relevant to note that there were differences between the elite and peasant conceptions of witchcraft, and this extended to the persecution of women. For the peasantry, the persecution of witches was less of the pact with the Devil and more of practical concerns such as the failure of crops or the death of livestock (Laurence, 1995: 216-218). Similarly, with the persecution of women, the concerns circled around the fact that babies and young children were being Ã¢â¬Å"victimsÃ¢â¬ of maleficia, rather than the witch being a Devil-worshipper per se. Unsurprisingly, therefore, a large number of women who were accused of being witches were the lying-in maids for more privileged families, who looked after the newborns and had direct contact with them, as in the case of Anna Ebeler of Augsburg (Roper, 1991: 19). Roper (1991: 23) also points to how this may be a result of the association of femineity and maternity. Normal women were able to have children, yet witches w ere unable to, leading to a sense of envy that bred the feeling of hatred towards mothers and their babies. Strands Of Deviance One of the central themes occurring in the witch-hunts would have to be the fact that the society in early modern Europe had very little tolerance for those who were different from them. Jews and homosexuals were persecuted, and the society was predominantly peasant, poor and part of the Roman Catholic Church. Those who were different were frowned upon. Women generally married and had children at a young age, were uneducated and viewed as weak. Their primary purpose was to be subservient to their husbands and serve their families, keeping the household. This view of women can be contrasted to the stereotype of a witch, as mentioned above. Being old and unmarried, as well as being socially isolated, these alleged witches were evidently different from the general conception of a woman in society. Larner (1981:92) puts forward the idea that witches were persecuted not because they were women, but because they were Ã¢â¬Å"non-womenÃ¢â¬ who did not fit into the societal view of a woman. While a typical woman was maternal, witches were unable to have children; where typical women stayed home at nights, witches flew to remote locations to join Sabbaths. This fit in with the elite conceptions that the reality in which witches lived in was essentially one that was an anti-society. BlÃ ©court (2000: 300) explains that God was a Ã¢â¬Å"guardian of social normsÃ¢â¬ , while the Devil was just the very opposite. These Ã¢â¬Å"non-womenÃ¢â¬ were persecuted for disobeying the social norms, and some historians even argue that women accused other women of being witches because they felt threatened by an individual who did not conform to the male image of them (Larner, 1981: 102). The role of the Roman Church was also not to be ignored in the reinforcement of this stereotype. Women ha d an increased likelihood to practice love magic as compared to men (BlÃ ©court, 2000: 303), and since only priests of the Church could legally practice magic, they were more likely to be persecuted as a result. Remote Possibilities While the possible presence of a repressive patriarchy or a societal aversion to deviant behaviour have often been cited as the reasons behind the gender imbalance during the witch-hunts, there are a few other remote possibilities that will be mentioned in the passing. Scully (1995: 857-858) points to how Venetian witches could choose witchcraft as a career option as opposed to being married or forced into prostitution, and this could be an escape from a possibly malevolent life, thereby proving to be a popular alternative for women in the region at that time. In his paper, Goodare (1991: 291-292) argues that economic factors could have been one of the reasons for the witch-hunts. Since the people had fallen upon hard times, those dependent upon charity handouts were hostile to others who were their competition and these were mainly women. Another article by Ross (Ross, 1995: 333-337) draws an interesting correlation between the outbreak of syphilis in the 16th century and the perse cution of more women than men. He posits that women, being the symbols of fertility, could be shunned due to syphilis as they would be spreading the venereal disease. Further, much of the witchs behaviour, he says, could be attributed to the madness that is a symptom of the disease. While fascinating, these observations by historians seem to be unique suggestions that do not appear in the literature as main causes for the increased persecution of women. Conclusion To conclude, this report has outlined the stereotype of a witch and what perpetrated this stereotype throughout early modern Europe. It seems persuasive to argue that although there was a strong patriarchal society in those days, this culture did not amount to being misogynistic in nature. The stereotype of the witch that emerge during this period and that was adopted by most modern historians emphasise a few features of witches that generally seem to be a result of the lack of tolerance for social deviant behaviour, and simply reinforced time and again in a vicious cycle. The trend points to the fact that there are a variety of factors that resulted in more women being persecuted than men. Often, this phenomenon can only be attributed to the differences in the various societies in Europe, and the culture of the region or country. Ultimately, it can be concluded that a combination of factors led to more women being persecuted than men. References Anderson, Alan and Gordan, Raymond. 1978. Ã¢â¬ËWitchcraft and the Status of Women The Case of England. The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 29, No. 2: 171-184. Barry, Jonathan, Hester, Marianne and Roberts, Gareth. 1999. Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief (Past and Present Publications). Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. de BlÃ ©court, Willem. 2000. Ã¢â¬ËThe Making of a Female Witch. Gender and History, Vol. 12, No. 2: 125-141. Goodare, Julian. 1998. Ã¢â¬ËWomen and the Witch-Hunt in Scotland. Social History, Vol. 23, No. 3: 288-308. Hufton, Olwen. 1983. Ã¢â¬ËWomen in History. Early Modern Europe. Past Present, No. 101: 125-141. Larner Christina. 1981. Enemies of God: The Witch-Hunt in Scotland. London: Chatto Windus. Larner, Christina. 1984. Witchcraft and Religion: The Politics of Popular Belief. New York: Basil Blackwell. Laurence, Anne. 1995. Women in Engliand, 1500-1760, A Social History. London: Weidenfeld Nicolson Illustrated. Levack, Brian. 1987. The Witch-hunt in Early Modern Europe. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Monter, Williams. 1997. Ã¢â¬ËToads and Eucharists: The Male Witches of Normandy, 1564-1660. French Historical Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 563-595. Ross, Eric B. 1995. Ã¢â¬ËSyphilis, Misogyny, and Witchcraft in 16th-Century Europe. Current Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 2: 333-337. Sawyer, Ronald C. 1989. Ã¢â¬ËStrangely Handled in All Her Lyms: Witchcraft and Healing in Jacobean England. Journal of Social History, Vol. 22, No. 3: 461-485. Scully, Sally. 1995. Ã¢â¬ËMarriage or a Career?: Witchcraft as an Alternative in Seventeenth-Century Venice. Journal of Social History, Vol. 28, No. 4: 857-876. Primary sources: Darst, David H. 1979. Ã¢â¬ËWitchcraft in Spain: the Testimony of Martin de CastaÃ ±egas Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529). Kramer, Heinrich and Sprenger James. 1484. Malleus Maleficarum. Accessed 6 October 2009. Available at http://www.malleusmaleficarum.org/. Scot, Reginald. 1584. The Discoverie of Witchcraft. Retrieved from Early English Books Online. The practice of harmful magic
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Jodi PicoultÃ¢â¬â¢s My SisiterÃ¢â¬â¢s Keeper is a well-known and also the best book of the year 2005.It was also nominated for an IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. A novel which touches the heart of thousands people, despite the tragic that the Fitzgeralds family faced in the novel,my sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s keeper. It has became and caught the attention of many people. It alerts them of the fearsome happenings that may happen again and Picoult did not want it to repeat this such inhuman behavior again. The novel, Second Glance, has helped Picoult brought up the idea of this novel. In such an advanced technology world, she heard that a couple in America successfully conceived a sibling that is bone marrow match for his older sister who is still under hospitalized. It was , of course, outrageous and negative thoughts start popping and emerged on her mind, she was so concerned about how would both of the siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives change if the secret ,about why the brother is in this w orld, is revealed. She started to feel uneasy and look more profoundly at the family dynamics and how cloning and stem cell research might cause an impact on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This novel has repeatedly mentioned about the bonds between family which also mainly consist of the theme love and disguise. But firstly it was the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s bond which shows the Fitzgeralds Family has been staying ultimately strong and never disassociate into pieces throughout the whole process of the court case, hospitalization and arguments. From starting of the novel, AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s parents went for a test and examine to see if they could be part of KateÃ¢â¬â¢s donor .They are willing to sacrifice themselves to donate either bone marrow or organs to her daughter, Kate to ensure that she will stay alive a... ..., she does not have any valid reason other than saying her rights for her own body to try to knock down the idea of her mother to hold her sister, KateÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Anna puts herself up into a very selfish and abominable person that wants everything first for herself than anyone. She told everyone that she does not want any involvement with her own physical body with Kate which has created a tense conflict in the middle of the story. It shows that the character hide the real intentions to keep away from other people, which creates many misunderstanding issues that might further increase the tension between two parties. Hence, both parties might no longer have trust in each other and might also suspect each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. One should learn to avoid hiding secrets from family as they shared the same genes and blood with us and they may help us in every great possibility.