Sunday, December 22, 2019

Comparison of ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ and ‘My Last Duchess’ Essay

‘Porphyria’s Lover’ and ‘My Last Duchess’ are both poems by the Victorian poet Robert Browning. In this essay I will compare these two poems to find similarities and differences. Both of these poems can be used read from different points of view and they could also be used to show how society treated women in the Nineteenth Century: as assets, possessions. Both of these poems are what are known as a dramatic monologue as well as being written in the first person. The whole poem is only one stanza long, and each line in the stanza comprises of eight syllables. ‘My Last Duchess’ is about a member of the nobility talking to an ambassador concerning his last wife, who later on in the poem is revealed to have been murdered by the person†¦show more content†¦The Dramatic Monologue in ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ helps build tension, horror and suspense because only one character is talking, making it a one-sided story. After he tells us about himself, the way he very unexpectedly killed Porphyria shocked and surprised me. However, the dramatic monologue in ‘My Last Duchess’ is very interesting simply because one of th e main characters in absent throughout the whole poem, making us want to learn first-hand about them, and actually see if they were actually like the way they were described. ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ is set in a cottage. The weather is windy and rainy but improves when Porphyria enters the cottage. In contrast, ‘My Last Duchess’ is set in an opulent, extravagant palace belonging to a wealthy duke. The settings in both poems are established by using descriptive language, similes, a few metaphors and use of detail such as the way he uses the painting to describe the painting. There is also use of pathetic fallacy. ‘Gay Feast’ in ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ hints at Porphyria’s other life, her main one; the one in which she is wealthy, beautiful, elegant and of high social standing. We can safely presume that her social standing is higher than that of the narrator, and this may anger him. However, in ‘My Last Duchess,’ I thought it was even more shockingShow MoreRelatedMy Last Duchess And Porphyrias Lover Comparison858 Words   |  4 Pagesmind through his poems. Specifically, his two poems My Last Duchess, and Porphyria’s Lover. These two texts share some startling similarities, and some thoughtful differences. â€Å"Social comparison is important.† (Festinger) Browning’s two poems My Last Duchess and Porphyria’s Lover follow a similar idea, and in the following text, will be compared in three main areas. The first area of discussion is who is telling the story. In My Last Duchess, the narrator is a vastly wealthy Duke, who lives inRead MorePorphyrias Lover And My Last Duchess Comparison789 Words   |  4 PagesMeaning Of Brownings Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess (An Analysis of Comparing and Contrasting Brownings poems called Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess) Robert Browning was a Victorian poet. He portrayed an understanding of gender rules in his poems. Browning’s poems are similar to a puzzle, which makes the reader have to figure out what is really being said in the poem. Browning wrote two famous dramatic monologue poems called Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess. His poems create aRead MoreA Comparison of Porphyria’s Lover and My Last Duchess by Robert Browning1188 Words   |  5 PagesA Comparison of Porphyria’s Lover and My Last Duchess by Robert Browning The two poems ‘Porphyria’s lover’ and ‘my last duchess’ by Robert Browning shows a dramatic monologue. Dramatic monologue is a story that is told by one person; which means you only get one point of view; in the two poems they are based on the narrator’s crisis, his feelings and his way of thinking; and you have to believe it because that is the only view your going to encounter. In dramaticRead MoreEssay on A Comparison Between My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover2909 Words   |  12 PagesA Comparison Between My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover Works Cited Missing Robert Browning was one of the greatest poets of the nineteenth century and is still considered one of the major poets of the Victorian era. He was born in 1812 and married the privately educated poet, Elizabeth Browning, in 1846. They eloped to Florence, Italy, where his wife gaveRead MoreA Comparison of the Dramatic Monologues of Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess by Robert Browning665 Words   |  3 PagesA Comparison of the Dramatic Monologues of Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess by Robert Browning Robert Browning (1812-89) was, with Alfred Lord Tennyson, one of the two most celebrated of Victorian poets. His father was a bank clerk, and Browning educated himself by reading in the family library. He published many verse dramas and dramatic monologues (poems, like My Last Duchess, in which a single character speaks to the reader), notably the collections Men and WomenRead MoreEssay about A Comparison of My Last Duchess and Porphyrias Lover1182 Words   |  5 PagesMy Last Duchess is a poem about an arrogant and extremely powerful Duke who is describing his deceased Duchess. From the word last in the title it is implied that the duke has had more than one duchess. In this poem, the Duke is extremely egotistic. He says, I choose never to stoop. The duchess would look at everyone in the world as being equal no matter what class they are. The duke however cannot do this. He is too worried about his appearance. Porphyrias Lover is a poem in whichRead MoreCompare My Last Duchess And Porphyrias Lover1098 Words   |  5 PagesLove That Kills (Comparing and Contrasting of â€Å"My Last Duchess† and â€Å"Porphyria’s Lover†) While reading the poems â€Å"My Last Duchess† and â€Å"Porphyria’s Lover† by Robert Browning, there is a large possibility that you may be left haunted by the words that were written on the paper. â€Å" This is not to say that he was blandly optimistic, as he is sometimes portrayed. He wrote fully about the world s cruelty and vice and was quite frank that he had himself had no divine revelation. Nevertheless, he resolvedRead MorePorphyrias Lover And My Last Duchess Comparison Essay1440 Words   |  6 PagesComparison between Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess Browning had a place with the Victorian Age, an age where adore coincided with disarray, religion, and distress. Taking care of business, Browning is a writer of affection. His works delineate the different shades of feeling, regardless of whether it is the smooth stream of perfect otherworldly love in The Last Ride Together or the complexities of brain and nature of affection in Porphyrias Lover and My Last Duchess. To draw an examinationRead More Robert Browning and the Power of the Dramatic Monologue Form1432 Words   |  6 Pagespoets, allows the writer to engage more directly with his reader by placing him in the role of listener. Robert Browning utilised the form to a famously profound effect, creating a startling aspect to his poetry. In poems such as â€Å"Porphyria’s Lover,† and â€Å"My Last Duchess,† for example, Browning induces a feeling of intimacy by presenting the reader as the ‘confidant’ to the narrator’s crimes; in â€Å"Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister,† the reader is more a witness to the narrator’s increasing instabilityRead More Relationships Between Women and Men in Brownings Poems Essay2589 Words   |  11 PagesBrowning’s poems including: My Last Duchess, a dramatic monologue in which the Duke speaks to an imaginary listener about a painting of his last duchess. Porphyria’s Love, another dramatic monologue where Porphyria’s lover speaks to himself about his Love surrounded by anxiety for Porphyria and how he overcomes it. Meeting at Night, which dramatizes the excitement and intensity of passion, the feeling of tense anticipation as the poet travels to meet his lover. However, Parting at Morning

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Storm Born Chapter Twenty-One Free Essays

I shot up, anger coursing through my body as I stared at that smug face. A heavy, bejeweled crown sat atop his brown hair, and he wore a close-fitting black satin dinner jacket. â€Å"Don’t look at me like that, Lady Markham,† he told me in a voice both pleasant and hostile. We will write a custom essay sample on Storm Born Chapter Twenty-One or any similar topic only for you Order Now â€Å"Dorian will not protect you if you start trouble in his home, no matter how advantageous you are as a lover.† â€Å"Fine. I’ll just have to kill you somewhere else.† â€Å"Your plan didn’t work so well last time.† â€Å"Neither did yours.† He leered. â€Å"That dress is exquisite, you know. It outlines every part of your body beautifully.† I crossed my arms instinctually. â€Å"Don’t waste my time with compliments.† â€Å"Just tossing in my own bid for your body, just like everyone else here.† â€Å"Yeah? Haven’t you paid attention? None of their compliments have worked either.† â€Å"Bah. They’re petty lordlings and leeches scraping for power,† he said with a sneer. â€Å"The general consensus is that you’ve refused everyone simply because you’ve yet to be approached by anyone worthy.† He cut a glance at Kiyo as he spoke. â€Å"Or maybe because I’m with Dorian. Not that it makes any difference. I’d fuck that trowe over there before I’d go anywhere near you.† â€Å"I think I’d like to see that, especially considering he comes to your knees.† â€Å"If this is the part where you tell me how well-endowed you are, save it. There’s nothing you can say that would get me near your bed, so just give it up and leave.† His features hardened, a cold and sardonic smirk turning up his lips. â€Å"I suppose I can’t argue with that. Not that it matters. I won’t be alone tonight.† He stepped aside, just barely, and inclined his head. I followed the motion across the room. Jasmine Delaney stood among a group of gentry nobles. She was watching us, an unreadable look on her face. A long dress, heavy with brocade and jewels, draped her slight form, and her gray eyes looked even more enormous than last time. I clenched my fists, remembering the look on my mom’s face when she described her captivity. Wil’s picture of a lonely girl, lost in her fantasy world, circled around my mind. â€Å"I will kill you, you bastard. But first I’ll make sure you beg me for it.† I sounded like Volusian. â€Å"Eugenie,† murmured Kiyo, laying a hand on my wrist. His voice was firm and cautionary. He apparently feared I’d do something stupid. It was a good fear. Aeson seemed unconcerned. â€Å"Those are kind of extreme measures, don’t you think? Especially when there are much simpler ones.† â€Å"Such as?† He shrugged. â€Å"I’ll turn her over to you tonight.† â€Å"Let me guess. If I go live with you instead?† â€Å"No such commitments. Come with me just for Beltane. One night, and both you and she walk free. Not a bad offer, especially since there are still a number of men out there plotting to carry you off for an extended period. Considering the other drivel that’s approached you, you could do a lot worse. I’m powerful. Rich. Influential. A worthy consort.† I looked Aeson up from head to toe, glanced at the still-watching Jasmine, and then turned back to him. â€Å"I think I’d rather just kill you.† He gave me a mocking bow, face still hard. â€Å"I look forward to the attempt.† He started to walk away, then gave Kiyo a considering look. â€Å"I suppose you could pick worse men to father your child. This one’s already proven he can do it.† Aeson swept away from us and headed back to his group. Sliding a possessive arm around Jasmine, he leaned over and kissed her hard, pressing her body up against his. With the difference in their heights, he looked like he was molesting a small child – which, I supposed, he actually was. Puberty be damned. The anger that sight inspired in me solidified into ice as I turned back around to face Kiyo. The look on his face made something inside of me curl up into a ball. â€Å"What’s he talking about?† He started to open his mouth and then paused, apparently reconsidering what he wanted to say. My incredulity exploded. â€Å"Kiyo! This is where you tell me he’s full of shit and you have no idea what he’s talking about.† â€Å"Eugenie†¦Ã¢â‚¬  he began slowly. â€Å"Oh, my God.† I turned around. The ice inside of me melted and made me queasy. â€Å"You have a kid you never told me about. You have a kid somewhere.† â€Å"No. Not yet.† I spun around. â€Å"What the hell is that supposed to – † I stopped. â€Å"Maiwenn. Maiwenn is pregnant.† Poor Maiwenn. Poor sick and weak Maiwenn. I’d heard a number of comments made about her condition and never questioned it. It was a sign of my distraction in the last month. Gentry didn’t really get sick. They could get killed in battle, die from an infected wound, or die of old age. That was about it. Even now, looking across the room, I saw her sitting and talking with a few others. She was smiling but looked pale under her tan. The dress she wore was loose and voluminous. The one she’d worn at my house had been similar, albeit not made of silk. She wasn’t currently showing off her body. â€Å"You should’ve told me,† I whispered. â€Å"Yes,† he said simply. â€Å"I should have.† â€Å"You should have told me!† I repeated, my voice loud and strained. Most of the room’s noise muffled my cry, but a few people nearby gave us curious looks. â€Å"Shh.† Kiyo took my arm and steered us back toward the wall. â€Å"I was waiting. Things were so uncertain between us. I wanted to have a steady foundation before I told you.† â€Å"Did you ever consider that telling me now might help that ‘steady foundation’? What happened to all the honesty rhetoric?† â€Å"And how would you have taken it?† he asked quietly. â€Å"You’ve had a hard enough time knowing she and I were together at all.† â€Å"No, I haven’t.† â€Å"Eugenie, I see it in your face whenever her name’s mentioned.† â€Å"It doesn’t matter. This is big.† He shook his head. â€Å"It happened in the past. She and I aren’t together. We’re friends now. You and I are together.† â€Å"So what? You’re not going to do anything with this baby because you guys aren’t together anymore?† â€Å"No! Of course not. I’ll be there for the baby, and I’ll support Maiwenn as much as that requires.† â€Å"Then that’s not the past,† I snapped. â€Å"That’s your future. My future too if you were planning on being with me.† His face turned even more sober than it had been. â€Å"You’re right,† he said after several drawn-out moments. â€Å"It was wrong of me. I’m sorry. I thought I was protecting you.† I gave a harsh laugh that bordered dangerously on being a sob. â€Å"Yeah. Everyone wants to protect me lately. My parents did too. You guys think if I don’t hear bad things, then they won’t exist anymore. But you know what? They do still exist, and I do end up hearing them. And I wish to God that I could have heard them from the people I love first.† I turned and started walking away. Kiyo grabbed my shoulder. I tried to tug out of his grasp. â€Å"Don’t touch me,† I warned. â€Å"We’re done here.† â€Å"What are you saying?† â€Å"What do you think? You think I’m going to smile and forgive all this? I can barely forgive my parents, and I’ve known them my whole life. I’ve barely known you for a month. That doesn’t really count for much.† He flinched. The hand on my shoulder dropped. â€Å"I see,† he said stiffly, face darkening. â€Å"Then I guess we are done here.† â€Å"Yeah.† We stood staring at each other, and where heat once had smoldered between us, only a lonely chasm remained. I turned on my heels and stormed across the room without even knowing where I went. Eager men approached me, but I brushed past them all, apparently showing the arrogance Shaya had said was expected of me. I just couldn’t face them right now. It was too much. All of it. The crazy propositions. My so-called legacy. Aeson and Jasmine. Maiwenn and Kiyo. Oh, God, Kiyo. Why had he done this to me? I’d tried to write him off after our first night together, and he’d made me care about him again. Now it only hurt twice as much. The words from last night came back to me. You’re mine. Apparently not. I stopped in the middle of the crowded ballroom floor with no clue where I was going. I’d gotten disoriented somehow and forgotten where the exit was. The throne was over there, so that meant – â€Å"Yo, Odile. Some party, huh?† My navigation attempts were interrupted by Finn’s approach. I still hadn’t adjusted to seeing him in his more humanlike Otherworldly form. â€Å"Finn! I need you to get me out of here.† He frowned. â€Å"You can’t leave yet. Etiquette says – â€Å" â€Å"Fuck etiquette,† I snarled. â€Å"Get me out. I want to be alone.† His standard cheery expression faded. â€Å"Sure thing. Come on.† He led me not toward the main doors but rather to a small doorway tucked near a corner. Delicious smells wafted out from inside. This was some sort of back way to the kitchen. A number of scurrying servants gave us startled looks as we passed through twisting corridors and banks of ovens, but Finn moved with purpose, never breaking stride. People tend not to question if they think you know where you’re going. With a flourish, he gestured me to a small alcove far from the bustle of the cooks. Hooks with cloaks and coats covered the walls, and I realized this must be where the staff had stashed their personal things. A small bench sat below the hooks. â€Å"Good enough?† Finn asked. â€Å"Yes. Thank you. Now go away.† I sat down and wrapped my arms around myself. â€Å"But shouldn’t I – â€Å" â€Å"Just go, Finn.† I could hear the tears in my voice. â€Å"Please.† He gave me a mournful, almost hurt look and then walked away. The tears took a long time to come, and even then, they did so reluctantly. Only a couple streaked down my cheeks. I had felt helpless with the mud elemental, but this was a different kind of helplessness, one with mental, not physical, consequences. My heart ached inside for Kiyo, and my stomach burned with fury against Aeson. Neither ailment looked to have a remedy anytime soon. I don’t know how long I sat there before Dorian came. I could only make out his shape in my periphery, but the scent of cinnamon gave him away. He sat down beside me for a long time, saying nothing. Finally, I felt his fingertip gently run along my cheek and wipe away one of the tears. â€Å"What can I do?† he asked. â€Å"Nothing. Not unless you’ll let me break hospitality and go do some damage.† â€Å"Ah, sweet one, if that were possible, I would have long since strangled several of my nobles, lest I be forced to listen to more of their idiotic blather.† â€Å"What’s the point of being a king, then?† â€Å"Not sure that there is one. The food maybe.† â€Å"You make a joke out of everything.† â€Å"Life’s too painful not to.† â€Å"Yeah. I guess.† We lapsed into silence until Dorian called someone’s name. A moment later, a small, harried servant appeared. â€Å"Bring us some of that chocolate cake Bertha made. Two slices.† The man hurried off. â€Å"I’m not hungry,† I mumbled. â€Å"You will be.† The cake arrived. It was one of those flourless kinds, so it was more like cake chocolate than chocolate cake. Raspberry sauce pooled around it. I found myself eating every bite. â€Å"Better?† Dorian asked. â€Å"Yeah.† â€Å"You see? I told you it was the food.† I set the plate on the floor and tried to give voice to an idea that had slowly been percolating in the back of my head. An idea that probably would never have dared surface had I not been so furious at Aeson and Kiyo tonight. Indeed, it was Aeson’s preposterous proposal that had reminded me of it. â€Å"Dorian?† â€Å"Yes?† â€Å"When we first met†¦you told me that if I slept with you, you’d go with me to get Jasmine. Does that offer still stand?† The first surprised look I’d ever seen on him crossed his face. I took a certain amount of pride in realizing I’d finally caught him off-guard. â€Å"My, my,† he said softly. â€Å"This is unexpected. So. Desperation and fury achieve what all my charms could not, hmm?† A flush spilled over my cheeks. â€Å"Well, no†¦it’s not like – â€Å" â€Å"No,† he said abruptly. â€Å"The offer does not still stand.† â€Å"But I thought – â€Å" â€Å"I saw you fight with Aeson and the kitsune. I won’t have you come to my bed out of some misguided sense of revenge on the two of them.† He was right in a way, I realized. This was my means of getting back at both them. Aeson for flaunting Jasmine. Kiyo for breaking my heart. â€Å"Please,† I said. â€Å"I’ll do it. I-I don’t mind. And anyway†¦I have to get Jasmine back. I can’t handle her being with him anymore.† Dorian was quiet for a long time. Finally he said, â€Å"All right.† I snapped my head toward him. â€Å"You mean it?† â€Å"Certainly. We’ll go back to my room and see how you do.† â€Å"See how – ? What’s that supposed to mean?† Was the deal contingent on how good I was in bed? He smiled. â€Å"I’ll get Nia to take you back. I have to mingle a bit more and will join you soon.† Nia arrived as if by magic and did exactly as he’d said. Once alone in his massive chamber, I paced restlessly, reconciling myself to sex with a full gentry. It would be easy. Nothing to it. I just had to lay there. Gentry didn’t carry diseases like humans. I couldn’t get pregnant. One night, and I could finally get revenge on that bastard Aeson and the smug look on his face. And yes, Dorian had been right: I’d be getting revenge on Kiyo too. Who knew? Maybe sleeping with Dorian would fill the terrible, aching hole Kiyo’s betrayal had left in me. â€Å"Admiring the view?† asked Dorian when he finally entered. I stood by the huge picture window, staring at my own reflection in the dark glass. â€Å"I’m never here in daylight. I’ve never seen what it looks like.† â€Å"It’s lovely. You’ll see it in the morning.† I supposed I would. He took off the heavy robe, poured a glass of wine, and sprawled back on the pile of pillows on his bed. The move seemed less an initiation into sex and more of an expression of fatigue. He looked very ordinary. Very human. â€Å"You look tired.† I leaned against the bedpost, watching him. He exhaled heavily. â€Å"It’s hard work amusing one’s admirers – as you can no doubt attest to. How’d you like your first royal party? Tell me who you spoke to. Your night must have been more tedious than mine.† Gingerly, I sat on the bed’s edge and recounted the night for him. I gave my opinions and offered up as many details as I could on my many solicitations. Names eluded me, but Dorian could identify the culprits pretty easily based on other identifying information. He laughed so hard at my accounts and opinions, I thought he’d start crying. Swinging himself up gracefully, he slid over on the satin coverlet to sit beside me. â€Å"You poor, poor thing. No wonder you like hunting us down. Although, I confess after my own equally inane experiences tonight, I might have a few names to give you.† â€Å"You shouldn’t say things like that.† He shook his head and laughed. â€Å"Stay here long enough, and you’ll say them too.† Those gold and green eyes watched me, glimmering with both affection and desire. For a moment, I could almost believe Dorian wanted me for me and not for my human fertility or connection to a prophecy. Resting his hand on the back of my neck, he kissed me, and I had no more time for questions. We’d kissed a lot by now, and his lips still held that same silky softness, that careful precision and control. I was used to this, and it warmed up every part of me, but tonight’s inevitable conclusion loomed before me. My lips almost faltered but still managed to kiss him back. I could do this. It was easy†¦right? He gently lay me back on the bed, still kissing me as he rested his body partially across my own. The heat and weight of him triggered something pleasurable within me, even as some part of my brain suddenly started pining for Kiyo and recalling every bad thing I’d ever been taught about gentry. My breath quickened but not from passion. No, no, I chastised myself, forcing my body to not go rigid. This is Dorian. There’s nothing to be afraid of. But I was afraid. This didn’t feel right. I couldn’t let myself do it, even though I knew there was no reason not to. I hung out with gentry now. I had titles. I wanted to learn their magic. I wanted to kill Aeson. And yet, somehow, some part of me refused to give into this final – Dorian broke away from me and sat up. â€Å"It’s as I thought. You don’t want to really do this. You’re afraid of me.† I half sat up, propping on my elbow. Swallowing, I tried to breathe more steadily. â€Å"Didn’t you say once that you wanted me to be afraid?† â€Å"Not this afraid. Besides, your heart is a bit muddled tonight.† He rose from the bed and casually poured another goblet of wine. Sipping from it, he walked over to the window and stared at the nothingness, just as I had earlier. â€Å"W-what are you doing?† â€Å"I told you before. I don’t take women who don’t want me.† He kept his back to me, but his voice held that usual carefree tone. Like everything was still just one big joke. I wondered if he was upset. I couldn’t read him at all. â€Å"Er, wait†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I scrambled off the bed and grabbed his arm, nearly spilling the wine. â€Å"What are you saying? We have to do this. I swear, it doesn’t matter. I want to do this. Really.† â€Å"Maybe. You don’t look at me like you do the kitsune, but I’ve felt your desire before. It’s a fleeting thing, though, and it can’t quite win against that part of you that says not to submit to one of the shining ones.† â€Å"Maybe we can ignore that part.† He laughed and touched my cheek. â€Å"I adore you, you know that? I’m so happy I met you.† I swallowed, anxious and desperate. â€Å"Please, Dorian. I want to get Jasmine. We have to do this.† â€Å"We aren’t doing anything like that. Not tonight, I’m afraid.† He walked away and sat back on the bed near the headboard, just as he had earlier. â€Å"I will, however, make you a deal. We will postpone our arrangement until you’re ready. In exchange for this grace period, I add the further caveat that we won’t go to Aeson until you’ve made some suitable progress with your magic.† I thought about our last couple of dismal lessons. â€Å"That might take awhile†¦.† â€Å"Then it takes awhile. Really, if you want every edge you can get to defeat him, you’ll be better off knowing something about your power, even if it’s small. Your weapons are strong, but if they’re gone†¦then they’re gone.† I wanted to fight him on this, to tell him I couldn’t wait that long. Fuck the magic. Fuck my prudish resistance. We should get the sex over with and just grab Jasmine. But I knew he was right. On all levels. He didn’t deserve my body without my mind being into it, and I did need every advantage I could get. â€Å"Well, then†¦can we practice tonight? Seeing as how nothing else is going on?† If I distracted myself, maybe I’d stop hurting for Kiyo. â€Å"No point in bothering with tact, eh? Very well, then, let’s see what we can accomplish.† I dragged a chair into the middle of the room while Dorian produced some more cords from his never-ending supply. â€Å"Beige and violet,† he said, holding them up. â€Å"To match your dress.† â€Å"It’s ‘champagne.'† He didn’t tie my hands this time, but he did completely bind my torso. Again, he used intricate patterns as he worked, integrating unique braids and weaves. The purple silk crisscrossed around my breasts, and each time his hand brushed some sensitive part, a secret thrill would run through my body. What was the matter with me? If I could have these physical reactions, then why couldn’t I have sex with him? The binding took forever, just like always. It made me so impatient, but Dorian clearly enjoyed it. He worked with infinite patience, careful of every weave and knot. When he finally finished, he stood back and surveyed me, just as he had the last two times. â€Å"Very nice,† he observed, eyes taking me in. A strange thought occurred to me as I sat there. I willingly let him do this to me, but really, it was a leap of faith. My arms might be free, but as he stood over me, I realized how helpless I was. How totally in his power I was if he wanted to abuse it. But he didn’t. He never did. After blindfolding me, I heard him fetch the water pitcher from the other room. Once it was apparently hidden, he returned to the bed. I heard the bed shift under his weight, the sound of more wine pouring out. â€Å"Have at it,† he said. I focused just like I’d done in our last two lessons. My mind expanded, reaching out into the room, trying to find the water I supposedly had an affinity for. I repeated the same exercises, visualizing moisture and wetness. The way it felt and tasted. Yet, when I pointed to where I thought the water jug sat, he told me I was wrong. So I tried again. Three more times, to be precise. Failures each time. I heard him yawn. â€Å"Would you like to call it a night? I dare say this bed is big enough for us to sleep chastely in. Or, if you wish, I have no qualms about sleeping on the sofa in the other room.† â€Å"No,† I said stubbornly. â€Å"I want to try again.† â€Å"As you like.† Again, I went through the motions, hating them yet burning with need. I wanted to do this. I wanted to control the power. I might have failed at sex tonight, but I would not fail at – â€Å"It’s there,† I said suddenly. â€Å"Where?† I pointed, and in my outstretched hand, I could almost feel something wet. It was so easy. How had I not noticed this before? â€Å"It’s right beside you. Really close. If you’re still lying on the bed, I’d say†¦elbow level. Maybe on the table.† He stayed quiet. â€Å"Well? I’m right, aren’t I?† â€Å"Check the rest of the room.† My hopes crumbled. â€Å"I was wrong again.† â€Å"Just check. See if the water is somewhere else.† I didn’t get his game. Why the vagueness? Had I found it or not? But I tried again, reaching out into the room. That spot near him pulsed to my senses. The water was there, I knew it. So what was this all about? Another spot suddenly called out to me. I reached for it without using my hands this time, and that same strong pulsing reached back. And with that sensation came a slight tingle, only a spark, but it whispered of the power I’d felt in the dream-memory. â€Å"Okay. Right by the door. On the floor, I think.† â€Å"Yes.† The response was surprisingly simple and clear. No jokes or games. â€Å"Right? I’m right? Really? You’re not just messing with me so we can go to bed?† I heard his soft laugher as he walked to the door and then approached me. Taking my hand, he dipped it down into a ceramic pitcher, and I felt cool water slide over my hand. I laughed, ecstatic and empowered. I felt like splashing it on both of us. â€Å"So what’d I find the first time then? By the bed? It must have been something, judging from your reaction.† â€Å"Indeed it was.† He took the pitcher away, walked toward the bed, and returned to me. I felt his arm move toward me, and then the scent of something strong and fruity touched my nose. â€Å"The wine,† I realized. â€Å"I found the wine.† â€Å"Yes. Quite remarkable too, considering I’d almost drank it all.† He set the decanter down and untied my blindfold. â€Å"Now, my dear, it’s time to go to sleep.† He knelt before me and started the tedious process of undoing all those ties and knots. I waved my free hands. â€Å"You want help?† He shook his head. I could smell the wine on him. â€Å"No. Leave me my simple pastimes, please.† â€Å"Are you drunk?† â€Å"Probably.† He worked steadily on freeing me from the cords, his fingers a little less precise than they’d been earlier. I again felt that strange chill over being so ensnared. Released at last, I stood up and stretched. â€Å"Can I have some of that?† I wanted to celebrate, and after weeks of good behavior, I realized I could safely drink here. Funny that the safest place for me now would be in a gentry’s keep. He held up the decanter. There was probably only one glass left. He eyed it askance for a moment and then took off his shirt. Perplexed, I watched him walk over to the door and stick his head out. â€Å"Yes, sire?† I heard a voice say. â€Å"We need more wine!† declared Dorian in a booming voice. â€Å"Lady Markham and I have a lot more to do tonight.† â€Å"Right away, your majesty!† â€Å"Hurry, man. You have no idea how demanding she is. I can barely keep her satisfied as it is.† I heard boots running on the stone floor. Dorian shut the door and turned to me. â€Å"Your wine will be here shortly, and my prowess will no doubt be proclaimed throughout the castle.† I rolled my eyes at his show. â€Å"So did I pass the test?† â€Å"Hmm?† â€Å"You said I had to make progress in magic before we could go get Jasmine.† â€Å"Oh. That. Well, this wasn’t exactly progress.† â€Å"The hell it wasn’t.† He sat next to me on the bed. â€Å"You found the water. Now you have to do something with it. Your enemies won’t be impressed when you inform them there’s a lake just over the next hill.† I sighed. Great. â€Å"So what’s the next step?† â€Å"Next you make the water come to you.† â€Å"Huh. Well. That at least sounds more exciting.† â€Å"Not really. Mostly we do exactly the same thing except you just sit around and try to make it move.† â€Å"You’re the most boring teacher ever.† He grinned and gave me a quick kiss on the cheek, just as a knock sounded at the door. â€Å"It all depends on what you want me to teach you.† How to cite Storm Born Chapter Twenty-One, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Chernobyl (3877 words) Essay Example For Students

Chernobyl (3877 words) Essay ChernobylChernobylBiology 10 ProjectFor Mrs. S. KolovetsiosBy Dmitry Neofitides1/05/99ContentsIntroduction The accident Release of radioactive materials Reaction of national authorities Radiation dose estimates Health impact Agricultural and environmental impacts Potential residual risks ConclusionIntroductionOn 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power station, in Ukraine, suffered a major accident that was followed by a contamination of the surrounding area by the large quantities of radioactive substances. The specific features of the contamination favored a widespread distribution of radioactivity throughout the Northern Hemisphere, mainly across Europe. A contributing factor was the variation of meteorological conditions and wind regimes during the period of release. Activity transported by the multiple plumes from Chernobyl was measured not only in Northern and in Southern Europe, but also in Canada, Japan and the United States. Only the Southern Hemisphere remained free of co ntamination. This had serious radiological, health, social and economic consequences for the populations of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and to some extent they are still suffering from these consequences. Although the radiological impact of the accident in other countries was generally very low, and even insignificant outside Europe, this event enchanted public apprehension all over the world on the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy. The accidentThe Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was to be shutdown for routine maintenance on 25 April 1986. On that occasion, it was decided to carry out a test of the capability of the plant equipment to provide enough electrical power to operate the reactor core cooling system and emergency equipment during the transition period between a loss of main station electrical power supply and the start up of the emergency power supply provided by diesel engines. Unfortunately, this test, which was to concern the non-nuclear part of the power plant, was carried out without a proper exchange of information and co-ordination between the team in charge of the test and the personnel in charge of the operation and safety of the nuclear reactor. Therefore, inadequate safety precautions were included in the test program and the operating personnel were not alerted to the nuclear safety implications and potential danger of the electrical test. This lack of co-ordination and awareness, resulting from an insufficient level of safety culture within the plant staff, led the operators to take a number of actions which deviated from established safety procedures and led to a potentially dangerous situation. This course of actions corresponded to the existence of significant drawbacks in the reactor design that made the plant potentially unstable and easily susceptible to loss of control in case of operational errors. The combination of these factors provok ed a sudden and uncontrollable power surge that resulted in violent explosions and almost total destruction of the reactor. The consequences of this catastrophe were further worsened by the graphite moderator and other material fires that broke out in the building and contributed to a widespread release of radioactive materials to the environment. Release of radioactive materialsThe release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere consisted of gases, aerosols and finely fragmented nuclear fuel particles. This release was extremely high in quantity, involving a large fraction of the radioactive product inventory existing in the reactor, and its duration was unexpectedly long, lasting for more than a week. This duration and the high altitude (about 1 km) reached by the release were largely due to the graphite fire which was very difficult to extinguish. For these reasons and frequent changes of wind direction during the release period, the area affected by the radioactive plume and the consequent deposition of radioactive substances on the ground was extremely large, contaminating the whole Northern Hemisphere, although only part of Europe had significant levels of contamination. The pattern of contamination on the ground and in foodchains however was very uneven in some areas due to the influence of rainfall during the passag e of the plume. This irregularity in the pattern of deposition was particularly pronounced at large distances from the reactor site. Reactions of national authoritiesThe scale and severity of the Chernobyl accident had not been foreseen and took most national authorities responsible for public health and emergency preparedness by surprise. The intervention criteria and procedures existing in most countries were not adequate for dealing with an accident of such scale and provided little help in decision-making concerning the choice and adoption of protective measures. In addition, early in the course of the accident there was little information available and considerable political pressure, partially based on the public perception of the radiation danger. Within the territory of the former Soviet Union, short-term countermeasures were massive and, in general, reasonably timely and effective. However, difficulties emerged when the authorities tried to establish criteria for the management of the contaminated areas on the long term and the associated relocation of large groups of population. Various approaches were proposed and criteria were applied over the years. Eventually, criteria for population resettlement or relocation from contaminated areas were adopted in which radiation protection requirements and economic compensation were main factors. Spread of contamination at large distances from the accident site caused considerable concern in many countries outside the former Soviet Union and the reactions of the national authorities to this situation were extremely varied, ranging from a simple intensification of the normal environmental monitoring programs, without adoption of specific countermeasures, to compulsory restrictions on the marketing and consumption of food Apart from the differences of contamination levels and public health systems between countries, one of the main reasons for the different situations observed in the different countries comes from the different criteria taken for the choice and use of intervention and implementation of protective action s. These differences were in some cases due to misinterpretation and misuse of international radiation protection guidelines, especially in the case of food contamination, and were further enhanced by the overwhelming role played in many cases by non-radiological factors, such as social, economic, political and psychological ones. This situation caused concern and confusion among the public, arguing among the experts and difficulties to national authorities. These problems were particularly felt in areas close to international borders due to different reactions of the authorities and media in bordering countries. However, all these issues were soon identified as an area where several lessons should be learned and international efforts were undertaken to harmonize measures of emergency management. Radiation dose estimatesMost of the population of the Northern Hemisphere was exposed to the radiation from the Chernobyl accident. After several years calculations of data from all available sources it is now possible to tell ranges of doses received by the various groups of population affected by the accident. The main doses are those of the thyroid due to external irradiation and inhalation and ingestion of radioactive iodine isotopes and those to the whole body due to external irradiation from and ingestion of radioactive cesium isotopes. According to current calculations, the situation for the different exposed groups is the following:?Evacuees? More than 100,000 persons were evacuated, mostly from the 30-km radius area around the accident site, during the first few weeks following the accident. These people received significant doses both to the whole body and to the thyroid, although the distribution of those doses was variable among them and depended on their places around the accident site and the delays of their evacuation. Doses to the thyroid ranging from 70 millisieverts to adults up to about 1,000 millisieverts (1sievert) to young children and an average individual dose of 15 millisieverts to the whole body were estimated to have been absorbed by these people before they were evacuated. Many of them continued to be exposed, although to a lesser extent depending on the sites of their relocation, after their evacuation from the 30-km zone. In feminist writing EssayOutside the former Soviet Union, no concerns were ever warranted for the levels of radioactivity in drinking water. On the other hand, there are lakes, particularly in Switzerland and the Nordic countries, where restrictions were necessary for the consumption of fish. These restrictions still exist in Sweden, for example, where thousands of lakes contain fish with a radioactivity content that is still higher than the limits established by the authorities for sale on the market. Potential risksWithin seven months of the accident, the destroyed reactor was encased in a massive concrete structure, known as the sarcophagus. This was done to provide some form of containment of the damaged nuclear fuel, destroyed equipment and reduce the likelihood of further releases of radioactivity to the environment. This structure however wasnt intended as a permanent containment, rather as a provisional barrier until more radical solution for the elimination of the destroyed reactor and the safe disposal of the highly radioactive materials was to be found. Nine years after its erection, the sarcophagus structure, although still generally sound, raises concerns for its long-term resistance and represents a potential risk. In particular, the roof of the structure had for a long time numerous cracks with leaks and penetration of large quantities of rainwater that is now highly radioactive. This also creates conditions of high humidity producing corrosion of metallic structures that support the sarcophagus. Some massive concrete structures, after the reactor explosion, are unstable and their failure, due to further degradation or to external events, could provoke a collapse of the roof and part of the building. According to various analyses, a number of potential accidental scenarios could be predicted. They include a criticality excursion due to change of configuration of the melted nuclear fuel masses in the presence of water leaked from the roof, a resuspension of radioactive dusts provoked by the collapse of the enclosure and the long-term migration of radionuclides from the enclosure into the groundwater. The first two accident scenarios would result in the release of radionuclides into the atmosphere that would produce a new contamination of the surrounding area within a radius of several tens of kilometers. It is not expected, however, that such accidents could have serious radiological consequences at longer distances. As far as the leaching of radionuclides from the fuel into the groundwater, it is expected to be very slow and it has been estimated that, for example, it will take 45 to 90 years for certain radionuclides such as strontium90 to migrate underground up to the Pripyat River catchment area. The expected radiological significance of this phenomenon is not known with certainty and a careful monitoring of the situation of the groundwater will need to be carried out for a long time. The accident recovery and clean-up operations have resulted in the production of large quantities of radioactive wastes and contaminated equipment which are currently stored in about 800 sites within and outside the 30-km exclusion zone around the reactor. These wastes and equipment are partly buried in trenches and partly conserved in containers isolated from groundwater by clay or concrete screens. A large number of contaminated equipment, engines and vehicles are also stored in the open air. All these wastes are a potential source of contamination of the groundwater that will require close monitoring until a safe disposal into an appropriate repository is implemented. In general, it can be concluded that the sarcophagus and the proliferation of waste storage sites in the area constitute a series of potential sources of release of radioactivity that threatens the surrounding area. However, any such releases are expected to be very small in comparison with those from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and their consequences would be limited to a relatively small area around the site. On the other hand, concerns have been expressed by some experts that a much more important release might occur if the collapse of the sarcophagus should induce damage in the Unit 3 of the Chernobyl power plant, which currently is still in operation. In any event, initiatives have been taken internationally, and are currently underway, to study a technical solution leading to the elimination of the sources of potential risk on the site. Lessons learnedThe Chernobyl accident was very specific in nature and it should not be seen as a reference accident for future emergency planning purposes. However, it was very clear from the reactions of the public authorities in the various countries that they were not prepared to deal with an accident of this magnitude and that technical and/or organizational deficiencies existed in emergency planning in almost all countries. The lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl accident were, therefore, numerous and evolve all areas, including reactor safety and severe accident management, intervention criteria, emergency procedures, communication, medical treatment of irradiated persons, monitoring methods, radioecological processes, land and agricultural management, public information, etc. However, the most important lesson learned was probably the understanding that a major nuclear accident has inevitable transboundary implications and its consequences could affect, directly or indirectly, many countries even at large distances from the accident site. This led to an extraordinary effort to expand and reinforce international co-operation in areas such as communication, harmonization of emergency management criteria and co-ordination of protective actions. Major improvements were achieved in this decade and important international mechanisms of co-operation and information were established, such as the international conventions on early notification and assistance in case of a radiological accident, by the IAEA and the EC, the international nuclear emergency exercises (INEX) program, by the NEA, the international accident severity scale (INES), by the IAEA and NEA and the international agreement on food contamination, by the FAO and WHO. At the national level, the Chernobyl accident also stimulated authorities and experts to a radical review of their understanding of and attitude to radiation protection and nuclear emergency issues. This prompted many countries to establish nationwide emergency plans in addition to the existing structure of local emergency plans for individual nuclear facilities. In the scientific and technical area, besides providing new surge to the nuclear safety research, especially on the management of severe nuclear accidents, this new climate led to renewed efforts to expand knowledge on the harmful effects of radiation and their medical treatment and to revitalize radioecological research and environmental monitoring programs. Substantial improvements were also achieved in the definition of criteria and methods for the information of the public, an aspect whose importance was particularly evident during the accident and its aftermath. ConclusionThe history of the modern industrial world has been affected on many occasions by catastrophes comparable or even more severe than the Chernobyl accident. However this accident, due not only to its severity but especially to the presence of ionizing radiation, had a significant impact on human society. Not only it produced severe health consequences and physical, industrial and economic damage in the short term, but, also, its long-term consequences in terms of social, economic disruption, psychological stress and damaged image of nuclear energy, are expected to be long standing. However, the international community has demonstrated a remarkable ability to understand and value the lessons that were drawn from this event. Now it is better prepared to cope with a challenge of this kind, if ever a severe nuclear accident should ever happen again. BibliographyBegichev S.N., Borovoy A.A., Burlakov E.V. Radioactive Release due to Chernobyl Accident. Fission Products Transport Processes in Reactor Accidents World Conference Vienna 1996. Chernobyl: 10 years afterwards. Kurchatov research institute. Chernobyl: Causes and Aftermath. Microsoft Encarta 99 BibliographyIncluded in the PaperScience Essays

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Human Resource Management report

Summary This paper looks at the human resource management strategies adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the various competing organizational pressures. It also looks at the organizational, sectoral, national and international contexts that affect the Human Resource Management policies and practices of the organization.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management report specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO), which was developed in 1948, is an organization within the United Nations that coordinates on the various aspects of public health across the world. Its headquarters are situated at Geneva, Switzerland. WHO took over from the Health Organization which was in the League of Nations. The main mandate of the World Health Organization is to ensure that all people are as healthy as possible. It therefore does this by controlling some of the d iseases that are easily infected and they include malaria, TB and H.I.V/AIDS and come up with other programs that actually treat or provide preventive measures against those diseases. Preventive measures include use of vaccines whose effectiveness has been guaranteed. Use of condoms has also been encouraged by the organization so as to prevent the deadly HIV/AIDS. WHO is well known for its success in the complete eradication of the smallpox in 1980. Polio is currently in its list and is to be eradicated in the coming few years. The World Health Organization employs and encourages its Members to use evidence-based strategies such as the use of data collection in health surveys in there health policy structure. The WHO normally prints out the World Health Report that provide information on some of the issues to do with health globally. The organisation has also developed strategies to assess the capacity of the systems and the workers so as to ensure that it meets goals of attaining g ood health for the nations. WHO is also involved in conducting campaigns that may help raise awareness of some of the health hazards such as the smoking of cigarettes that contain tobacco which pose threat to human health. It also encourages the consumption of certain foods such as vegetables and fruits which promote health. World Health Organization conducts research on health issues and tackles some diseases that are of global concern. It has also developed networks that ensure that information on research done on health issues can be accessed in the third world countries. The organization obtains its funds from contributions from local governments, Non-organizational organizations and private sectors of its members and through donations. The WHO has developed partnerships with other bodies in doing its work and now has at least eighty partnerships.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Lea rn More The World Health Organization has a personnel policy which is similar to that of other United Nations agencies. Recently, the organization prohibited the recruitment of smokers to be part of staff so as to promote its integrity on having an environment free of tobacco. This principle was also adopted by other one hundred and sixty eight countries in 2003 and actually signed a convention that controlled the use of tobacco. Methodology This paper will use the World Health Organization (WHO) as a case study and its human resource strategies and policies will be looked at critically so as to analyze the various components of human resource management policy and practice which include recruitment and selection of staff, training, Human Resource Development, employment relations, employee participation and rewarding systems. The various challenges faced will be looked at and recommendations will be made. Secondary sources of data collection will be used and will include books an d internet information about the organization in question. WHO’s HR strategies and policies At the moment, the World Health Organization has estimated the number of the total health workers to hit the 59.2 million. Two thirds of the estimated number constitutes those that provide health services and the rest are management and subordinate staff (World Health Report, 2006). It has been identified that problems that face the health sector revolve around politics and the culture of a given country. The economic status and the type of health systems employed also may cause problems in the health sector. In order to combat these problems, various factors can be considered. Inputting funds in the sector can help tackle some issues. Changing the training programs can also work towards solving some of the problems faced in the health sector. Improving data accessibility and the working conditions in the sector can be huge change effectors. The above factors are however not directly c ontrolled by the Human Resource for Health (HRH) policy makers. It has therefore been hypothesised that, for countries to implement their Human Resource for health policies, it must make its strategies to be compatible with the reforms of that country and also to utilize processes based on sound data in making of policies.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Human Resource Management report specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Global Health Workforce Strategy Group (GHWSG) was initiated by the World Health Organization in 2000. It was established so as to assist in the job of bettering the performance of the health workers. The various groups made discussions via videoconferencing. The workshop attended by the GHWSG was aimed at informing other stakeholders and ensure their full participation in finding the important areas that would make-better the HRH policy. The Global Health Workforce Strategy workshop was a bi g step in the attempt to curtail the human resource issues faced globally and ensuring sustainability in human resource for health. The issues to do with health workers and human resource for health are among the most challenging areas to change in especially for countries that are aiming at improving the health sector and its systems. WHO came up with certain strategies to aid in sustainability in human resource for health. This includes developing ways of performing impact assessment for the human resource and induces human resource activities in other parts of the policy. This involves the incorporation of mechanisms that aid countries in performing impact assessment on the initiatives that are suggested for the health sector that affect the workers. WHO advocates for the developing of competent staff through encouraging further training and education. This involves the use of experts in the field to integrate and apply necessary knowledge mechanisms. WHO also advocates for human resource and encourages for networks to be created by raising the awareness among its stakeholders. One way in which this is done is through the development of web sites that provide the necessary information. HRM policy and practice The World Health Organization usually recruit workforce on either permanent terms or temporarily by offering contracts and are put into two broad categories; either General Service staff and professionals abbreviated as G and P respectively.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The professional workers are obtained internationally and hold senior management positions. They are therefore required to have high levels of training and expertise. The professionals are required to be flexible in terms of their working environments since they can be deployed for service at any part of the globe. The general service staff (G) however are recruited locally and placed at respective stations where they are expected to work. Their main work is that of assisting the professional staff so as to ensure that there is smooth running of the activities. National Professional Officers work in their come from and do their job in a professional manner. They are required to work in the country of origin since they require knowledge and experience of their country. One of the requirements for one to qualify for the professional position at the WHO includes having a degree from the university and having pursued a postgraduate course that is management or health-related. Some relev ant amount of experience in the area is required at global level. The candidate must possess knowledge on policy issues and public health. Another additional requirement is the proficiency in a second language apart from English. The WHO observes certain principles during recruitment and this includes maintaining diversity of staff in the organization and obtaining representatives in each member state. Only qualified staff is recruited and gender balance is assured. Some restrictions are however observed during recruitment and this includes age restrictions. People of the ages below 20 and 62 do not qualify for recruitment. The policy against smokers disqualifies tobacco smokers in the recruitment process. WHO considers tobacco as a killer and takes away approximately 5 million people per year while this many cases of death are very preventable. As for members of staff who smoke, WHO encourages them to quit and provide them with assistance on how to quit. The organization has develo ped several strategies to increase awareness about the organization and the employment opportunities available there so as to attract potential workforce from all over the world. Another method employed is the use of the missions in Geneva to look for potential candidate from various institutions and other organizations that participate in health-related stuff. Another strategy yet is the use of e-mails in disseminating of the information. The WHO sent e-mails to its collaborators so as locate its potential candidates. The WHO is involved in conducting quality assessments and quality assurance so as to ensure that the members of staff are competent and provide quality service to the organization. Assessment is done on individuals and groups so as to check for team work. Quality assessment is essential so as to attain quality assurance by an organization (Bandaranayake, 2000). A World Health Organization report on activities done in South-East Asia to check on quality of its services on blood transfusion showed that they were at various levels in development when compared with other states. Thailand, for example is ISO certified due to its excellent systems. Some countries do not attain this level of quality assurance despite having good infrastructure in form of qualified personnel, quality and funds. This is mainly because of the lack of full support of the government in the sector and many changes that occur in the government (Bandaranayake, 2000). The World Health Organization however acknowledges that there are factors beyond control that prevent assurance of quality service by the country and these includes factors such as climate change, factors that impede communication, infrastructure and political influence. In an attempt to explain this, a report on the laboratory services at Maldives was considered. One of the reasons that were identified as the reasons for the low quality of service were the difficulties faced during the transportation process. Ano ther reason was the fact that some of the slides and reagents that were being used for the laboratory activities had actually expired. The WHO uses staff appraisal as part of its practices so as to ensure achievement of its goals and objectives. It has however been argued that staff appraisal has more effect on staff behaviour than the organization’s performance (Martinez, 2000). For a long time, appraisal of staff had only to do with relationship between a manager (head) and the individual being appraised and therefore the individual hardly ever knew of it as it was kept from him. As much as it is advisable to maintain interactions at personal levels, it doesn’t necessarily mean that there will be incorporation between the person and the goals of the organization. The World Health Organization supports and encourages the use of teamwork in the performance of its activities. The WHO ensures staff development through offering rewards to its workers both at individual an d team levels. It has been proven that rewards contribute greatly in the performance of an organization and there are cases recorded where there was no evidence of enhancement of performance until a form of reward system was adopted (Martinez, 2000). Many writers have however argued out that a integration of a number of incentives-both positive and negative-to either commend a staff member for impressive performance or to punish and discourage staff that perform poorly. Several studies have specifically looked at the relationship that exists between human resources and the reforms that have been developed concerning health. Most have just looked at the way the reforms have changed the mode of interaction among health workforce within the place of work but only a small number of the researchers have actually looked at how the workers themselves affect the reforms. These reforms have changed various important aspects of the health workers. These changes include the level of decentrali zation of areas of management, the working conditions, the level of skills needed for one to be recruited and the issues to do with incentives and payments. The health workers have now on many occasions presented their ideas and have had their voices heard and therefore have had the opportunity to air their views on the various aspects of management (Dussault and Rigoli, 2003). This evidences show the extent to which the workforce in the health sector-whether as individually or as a collection-have had in the changing of the reforms and therefore ensuring success in the participation of the staff (staff involvement). This provides a tool that can be used to predict the way in which the workforce can react to emerging issues to do with reforms. Competing organizational pressures Some of the challenges facing the World Health Organization in its mandate of promoting health throughout the globe include the acute shortage of trained health workers. This shortage has been caused due to v arious factors which include the moving out of people to other developed countries hence reducing their numbers. The other reason include the under production of the workers in the health sector and the difficulty in paying high salaries and allowances to health workers and hence the difficulty in sustaining them in the respective countries. Some factors that are unavoidable such as illness and death of staff also contribute the acute shortage of the workers (Brito and Novick, 2000). O’Neil (2008) confirmed that the major deficiency in all health systems is the presence of Human Resource managers and qualified specialists who can stand in the way of the challenges that face the health sector. Some managers and leadership figures in the health sector have complained of being forced to comply with some dictatorial rules laid by the civil service that impede their performance. The presence of self-centred and disunified Human resource management systems and the inappropriate uti lization of the health workforce is also a great challenge that faces WHO. Managers in many states acknowledge that the leadership force to combat these issues are lacking. Human resource management systems in the health sector are not usually centralized and the different authorities in charge of planning, incentive, promotions and the other human resource activities being assigned to different ministries in stead of a single body. Another challenge facing the WHO is the difficulty in securing equal job opportunities in the health sector for women. There is also a difficulty in motivating staff and ensuring high performance in the health sector through the utilization of incentives that involve pay or non-pay strategies. This includes providing opportunities for further learning to its staff and also opportunities to further develop their careers (WHO, 2000). Conclusion The world Health Organization is an important organization because of its task of ensuring that there is almost p erfect health for all the people within its member countries. It has been known to uphold its integrity in its policies and has been on the race in the attempt to raise awareness on such dangers as the use of tobacco cigarettes which is a killer and has claimed millions of lives. By ensuring a tobacco free environment, the WHO passes a strong message against the use of tobacco and in the process raise awareness on its dangers. The WHO adopts transparency in its method of recruiting staff and in the process maintains highly skilled staff members that ensure that the goals and objectives of the organization are obtained. The process of advertising for vacant posts within the organization ensures that many different states are alerted and the most qualified potential candidates only are given the opportunity to show their competence and skills. In this way it displays its corruption free nature and wins the trust of many who are looking forward to working for the organization or consid ering it the first choice when it comes to health issues. Since the World Health organization recruits both male and female candidates in organization, it promotes equity and help to shape the mentality and the perception that women are less useful to the society and in the process acts as a role model to the many organizations that have not been able to attain this level of equity in the selection of staff. This also helps promote the girl-child education especially in the third world (developing) countries. The world Health organization also appreciates its well performing staff by offering rewards and therefore motivates them and provides a good working environment and working conditions with its staff. The offering of disincentives to the poorer performing staff also helps them realize their weaknesses and through the help of management and other leaders in the organization, they would be able to rectify their misdeeds and ensure a bright future for the organization and its staf f. This also helps in establishing good relationships between the management and the staff and therefore creating a good environment for the workers and in the long run lead to the overall success of the organization. Recommendations Since the World Health organization faces some challenges which include having deficiencies in staff numbers due to insufficient salaries and allowances offered to them by their countries, I would recommend that the WHO should partner with its other member states and form a baseline to which all staff occupying the same position in the organization should the same amount of pay irrespective to the country the person is working for. Since some management figures in the health sector complain of being influenced negatively by political influence and being forced to comply with some law requirements that are set by the civil service, I would recommend that the WHO be made to be an independent body so that it can function independently from the political bo dies within the country and therefore attain its goals and objectives much easily. Human resource management systems in the health sector should centralized so that all activities are run by one centralized body instead of many group of bodies that may limit of success of the WHO. So as to combat the problem of shortage of trained staff, the WHO should set aside more of its funds on training staff rather than spending a lot of its funds of purchasing medicines that are to be administered to people and yet there are no people to administer it. References Bandaranayake, D. (2001) Assessing performance management of human resources for health in South-East Asian countries. Aspects of quality and outcome. Retrieved from Black, C. (2011) WHO Employment: Who We need. World Health Organisation. Retrieved from Brito, G. and Novick, M. (2000) Labour relations, employment conditions and participation in the h ealth sector. Retrieved from Dussault, G. and Rigoli, F. (2003) The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health. [online]. Available from . Martinez, J. (2001) Assessing quality, outcome and performance management. London, The Institute for Health Sector Development. O’Neil, L. M. (2008) Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health. Cambridge, Human resource for health. WHO (2000) Workshop on global health workforce strategy. Web. This report on Human Resource Management report was written and submitted by user Samantha Hodge to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Poe And Perverseness

Poe and Perverseness An extremely common state of mind known as perverseness is, quite possibly, the strongest driving force in Edgar Allan Poe’s, The Black Cat. In every one of us, although not so strong, there is a sense of stubbornness or perverseness. However, our stubbornness, such as, we must eat at a certain restaurant or wear a certain color of shirt is of a totally different type. The perverseness in the narrator of this story is a type that could put someone in prison for the rest of his or her life. When a person has gone through as many trials and hard times in a single lifetime, the possibility of mental issues is much more prevalent. Many of the occurrences in Poe’s stories cannot be understood without knowledge of his real-life background. The life of Edgar Poe began in 1809. Throughout his young life he was a model student and athlete. He excelled in school with little or no effort and was a record holder in the long jump. After losing his mother and step-mother to tuberculosis he began attending the, newly found, University of Virginia. However, his troubles did not end there. Soon after arriving, he created a severe debt for himself through gambling and was on the verge of poverty. Being forced to leave the University, he moved in with his aunt Maria Clemm. Not knowing it, he would here find the love of his life; Virginia Clemm. Virginia Clemm, however, was his cousin. Though that was socially acceptable at the time. After ten years of marriage he would finally lose her to tuberculosis. This tragedy then sent him into a spiraling state of depression (Poe, The Mystery†¦). One occurrence at the end of the story somehow sticks out. Poe states, â€Å"I rapped heavily, with a cane which I held in my hand, upon that very portion of the brick-work behind which stood the corpse of the wife of my bosom (Poe, The Black Cat).† This statement can be translated in one of two ways: as a mark of arroganc... Free Essays on Poe And Perverseness Free Essays on Poe And Perverseness Poe and Perverseness An extremely common state of mind known as perverseness is, quite possibly, the strongest driving force in Edgar Allan Poe’s, The Black Cat. In every one of us, although not so strong, there is a sense of stubbornness or perverseness. However, our stubbornness, such as, we must eat at a certain restaurant or wear a certain color of shirt is of a totally different type. The perverseness in the narrator of this story is a type that could put someone in prison for the rest of his or her life. When a person has gone through as many trials and hard times in a single lifetime, the possibility of mental issues is much more prevalent. Many of the occurrences in Poe’s stories cannot be understood without knowledge of his real-life background. The life of Edgar Poe began in 1809. Throughout his young life he was a model student and athlete. He excelled in school with little or no effort and was a record holder in the long jump. After losing his mother and step-mother to tuberculosis he began attending the, newly found, University of Virginia. However, his troubles did not end there. Soon after arriving, he created a severe debt for himself through gambling and was on the verge of poverty. Being forced to leave the University, he moved in with his aunt Maria Clemm. Not knowing it, he would here find the love of his life; Virginia Clemm. Virginia Clemm, however, was his cousin. Though that was socially acceptable at the time. After ten years of marriage he would finally lose her to tuberculosis. This tragedy then sent him into a spiraling state of depression (Poe, The Mystery†¦). One occurrence at the end of the story somehow sticks out. Poe states, â€Å"I rapped heavily, with a cane which I held in my hand, upon that very portion of the brick-work behind which stood the corpse of the wife of my bosom (Poe, The Black Cat).† This statement can be translated in one of two ways: as a mark of arroganc...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Ethical Dilemmas Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ethical Dilemmas - Case Study Example Valerie Young took the decision because of her dilemma related to the harm or consequences of whistleblowing. According to the ‘Utilitarian Principle’ of the ‘Balanced Interests Principles’, Valerie Young seemed to consider that after the completion of her educational course, the consequences will be minimized or rather she would have greater opportunity to face the challenges occurred after her whistleblowing. She was also concerned about the effects of her whistleblowing on her team members and to the organization as a whole which would also be reduced by the period. This reflects her concern to the benefit of the highest numbers which again depicts her ethical dilemmas to be partially influenced by the ‘Utilitarian Principle’ (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007). Valerie Young was also facing stress in terms of ethical dilemmas regarding the unethical behavior of her boss and the probable consequence which he might be facing after she blows the whistl e. She also considered the possible measures to be undertaken by the organizational leaders regarding the fact, when it was unambiguously mentioned in the company policies that any kind of bribery or unethical practices illustrating kickbacks would not be entertained. However, while considering the facts, Valerie Young proved to be equitable. That is, she tended to be focused on the equitable characteristics of her boss, rather than his arbitrary characteristics, such as gender, age and others. Thus, it is quite apparent that the ethical dilemmas faced by Valerie Young also depicted her consideration to the ‘Distributive Justice Principle’ as her ‘Concern for Other Principles’ (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007). 2.0. If You Were Valerie, What Would You Do? Ethical decision making of an individual largely depends... Ethical decision making of an individual largely depends upon the principles identified in the previous discussion of the paper. In this case, Valerie Young can be observed to undergo a few ethical dilemmas which are often termed to be a common reflection of human conscience while facing ethical challenges. Considering the above described ethical principles which are considered by individuals during their decision making regarding whistleblowing, it can be stated that Valerie Young’s actions were quite logical. However, the steps taken were not entirely ethical as it hampered the sustainability of the organisation and also affected the work culture to a large extent. Moreover, her prime focus was not to disturb her personal interests despite her awareness regarding the probable consequences to be faced by the organization, which again reflected an unethical behavior from Valerie Young’s end. Therefore, in this case both Valerie Young’s boss, Mr. Lionel Watersâ₠¬â„¢ and Valerie Young’s behavior can be recognized as unethical from the organizational perspective (Dench, 2006). Instead of securing the secrets to herself, Valerie Young could have conveyed it to the higher authorities of the company. As a marketing manager she had the liberty to convey any of her problems to the senior members of the organization. In this case, she could have utilized her right to convey the matter to the members of the board.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Walt Disney Hall Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Walt Disney Hall - Essay Example Later that year after enough sourcing for resources, the construction took off again. What lead after that proved a disaster for the dedication of the Walt Disney himself. However, there was a complete turn of events where when the budget far exceeded the available resources. Nevertheless, there was a move to use cheaper material rather than using the originally planned bricks, but it later proved to be a blessing in disguise which prompted to the reputation of the Los Angeles’ marvel. This was because the stainless steel move was a better match for Ghery’s architectural plan for the hall. This move saw the completion of the project in the latter months of 2003. There were substantial costs accredited mainly to the parking garage itself which cost $110 million, escalating the total cost including the floors of the entire construction to $274 million. Materials and Description of Architectural and Construction Form Gehry adopts to his childhood experiences to make differ ent architectural designs for the building, using 12500 unique pieces of steel each having sole characteristics. He also uses a variety of standard bricks to go along the regular formed parts of the architectural design. For the main auditorium he uses a type of fir wood to make the floors, walls and the ceilings. This is the same type of wood used in making violas, making them appropriate for making the site for presenting such performances. For the restaurant he uses mostly clear glass to allow enough lighting to bring in the warm and accommodating qualities of a restaurant. Through this he tries to make the transition to psychological and imaginative effect on architecture. Ownership The Walt Disney Hall is primarily owned by the widowed Lillian Disney after her major contributions to the construction. Her contribution was later topped by another contributor to the construction, who was the Walt Disney Company. The company contributed about $25 million. Additionally, the Walt Dis ney family made private contributions to the project amounting to an estimated $85 million. This is evidence that the ownership of the Walt building is not well defined, but its stakeholders in shareholding comprises a number of private entities individuals and companies that made their contribution to the construction of the building. However, it is safe to stipulate that the primary owners are the Walt Disney Company, Lillian Disney and the entire Walt Disney family. According to Bell, the owners of the Walt hall are mainly business people and profit making organizations who have wanted to proceed with the dedication started by Lillian, and not just for the purpose of making profit. The building however has a variety of functions held at the venue, ranging from orchestral performances, musical performances, movies’ premiering featuring in many television series episodes and movie features. Much of the maintenance of the building is done with the proceeds from the sale of th e tickets of which usually, most of it goes to serve in the Walt Disney foundation. Functions of the Hall The Walt Hall first performance was held in 2003 during the acoustics, Daphnis and Chloe’s acoustic performance which set the way for other grand performances, performing the Sonic LA, Sound Stage and Living LA. This paved way for other prime performances to follow in the wake of a new concert hall for Los

Monday, November 18, 2019

Business Environment Analysis of British Airways Assignment

Business Environment Analysis of British Airways - Assignment Example (BA) using a brief description of its mission, vision along with its long and short-term business objectives. The discussion would also focus on describing the extent to which BA addresses different objectives of the stakeholders and explain the key responsibilities of the organisation towards implementing strategies to accomplish them. Moreover, the aim of the assignment is also to understand the nature of the national environment in which BA operates, by evaluating economic system and assessing impact of the fiscal, monetary policy along with competition and regulatory mechanism on BA to achieve its business objectives. In addition, the assignment also tends to explain the current market structure of the airline industry of the UK and reveal how it determines the pricing and output decision on different airline activities of BA. Finally, the assignment will focus on the significance of key global factors that have major influence on the UK business organisations and how they shape the national business activities of BA. Founded in the year 1974, BA has long been witnessed as one of the highly reputed organisations in the global airline business industry. The organisation performs its continuous development through different unprecedented conditions of the global airline industry. In relation to the current business performance, the key purpose of BA is to maintain continuous focus on its strategy of being renowned as the world’s leading premium airline company (British Airways Plc., 2010). The mission statement of BA significantly defines delivering of effective airline services by acting responsibly to ensure better customers experience with adequate safety and confidence while flying to their respective destinations. With due regards to the mission statement of BA, providing adequate safety along with increasing confidence of the customers is the utmost factor

Friday, November 15, 2019

Witchcraft And Demonology In Europe

Witchcraft And Demonology In Europe The witch-hunts were one of the most important events in the history of early modern Europe, taking place from the mid-15th century and ending in the mid-18th century. The view of witchcraft evolved throughout the period, with the Canon Episcopi calling the belief in witches a heresy, to Pope Innocent VIII issuing a bull in 1484 to denounce the practice of witchcraft as a heresy all in a span of about 500 years. On the topic of witchcraft, it is unavoidable that the issue of gender would be discussed. The central question of this report would be how historians account for the persecution of more women than men in the witch-hunts in early modern Europe. The report will first outline the stereotype of a witch and discuss how this stereotype was promulgated. It will be concerned with two possible explanations that attempt to account for the persecution of more women than men firstly, how the persecutions may be a results of a misogynistic and patriarchal culture, and secondly, how the hunts may be been a result of the lack of tolerance for social deviance of women. The Stereotype Of A Witch A collection of statistics indicate that a majority of accused witches were women, with most estimates pointing to about 80% of all victims being women (Ross, 1995: 334). Levack (1987: 142) provides a list of statistics indicating that in most regions in Europe, about three-quarters of the accused were women, with the figures being 90% in regions in Poland and England. Very evidently, the predominant notion of a witch is that it is foremost a woman. In discussing the stereotype of a witch it is difficult not to make reference to the cumulative concept of witchcraft (Levack, 1987: 32-51), which points to certain factors that would help in the identification of a witch. These include a witchs association with the Devil, the pact with the Devil, the Sabbath, nightflying and metamorphosis. Reginald Scot in 1584 described witches as women who were â€Å"commonly old, lame, blearie-eied, pale, fowle, and full of wrinkles, poore, sullen, and superstitious†. This stereotype was promulgated by both genders. Women in early modern Europe were viewed as the weaker gender that was dependent on men in many ways, including for livelihood (Larner, 1984:86). Since the society was heavily patriarchal, women who did not fit in to the mould of a normal woman threatened the idea of females behaving in a particular manner. These women were nonconformists, and therefore put the livelihoods of other women at risk. Hence, they were ostracised by normal women. In behaving in a manner that was different, these women also threatened male domination and therefore had to be condemned by men. Both genders fed the idea that a woman who looked and behaved in a certain manner was a witch, hence allowing the stereotype to persist and spread. In addition, the stereotype of a domestic witch could have been said to be reinforced by a vicious cycle. This is evident in some cases, such as in that of Anna Schwayhofer, who confessed to stealing the Consecrated Host but still bothered to sweep up the crumbs after she had done so (Barry, Hester and Roberts, 1996: 230). The association of witches and broomsticks or distaffs used for spinning also fed the stereotype. Women were mostly restricted to the confines of their allotted spaces, and those practicing harmful magic would most likely be found in those spaces (Blà ©court, 2000: 303). Hence, it was not surprising that witchcraft was associated with the women and their domestic activities. Gendered Witchcraft And Misogyny The elite perception of women pointed to how they tended to be intellectually weaker than men, yet have more insatiable sexual appetites and a higher tendency to pursue the occult, a view propounded by 16th century friar Martin de Castaà ±ega and in the Malleus itself by Kramer and Sprenger. Hence, historical literature tended to point towards how women were the more inferior of the two genders, and therefore had the larger propensity to be driven towards becoming a witch. Without a doubt, the society in Europe at that point of time was one that was highly patriarchal in nature (Hufton, 1983, 125-141). While the society was essentially patriarchal in nature, there are arguments as to whether this can be extended to be characterised as being misogynistic. Anderson and Gordon (1978) point to the innate inferiority that women possessed in the eyes of the Roman Catholic Church, the dominant religious authority in that time, saying that the Church saw women as more â€Å"amenable to the allures of Satan† (Anderson and Gordon, 1978: 174). The paper also highlights the role of the Malleus Maleficarum (1486), that was anti-feminist and very popular, reprinting fourteen editions. The Malleus essentially highlights women as creatures possessing insatiable lust, yet not having the strength of mind to counter the temptations of the Devil. However, statistics also show that women were not the only ones who were victims of the witch-hunts. In several regions, men were the ones who were heavily persecuted instead. Regions such as Finland show a relatively even number of male and female persecutions, while in areas such as Normandy and Iceland, the number of accused male witches far exceeded the number of female ones. This clearly shows that if there had been a culture of misogyny, it was not uniformed throughout Europe. Monter (1964: 563) points out that the stereotypical witch in the French province of Normandy was not a poor, old woman, but a shepherd who may be a youth or an old man. Similarly, in Iceland, only 8% of all the accused witches were women (Levack, 1987: 142). The analysis and discussion of these statistics seem to point to the fact that there were differences in societal perspectives towards women and the differences in questioning techniques (Monter, 1964: 588). Monter (1964: 589) suggests that women wer e treated with leniency during the trial, and some were kept in prison alive for interrogation, even while the men were being executed. The reasons behind why men were more persecuted in some societies and women in others are unclear, but most historians point to the fact that it was impossible to pinpoint a particular reason in every society why this was so. Much of the reasons behind the gender imbalances must be attributed to the culture and views of the society itself, but what can be certain is that the witch-hunt was not strictly gender-specific. Without a doubt, a society that places emphasis on patriarchal values cannot be dismissed as misogynistic simply based on statistics alone. At this point it is relevant to note that there were differences between the elite and peasant conceptions of witchcraft, and this extended to the persecution of women. For the peasantry, the persecution of witches was less of the pact with the Devil and more of practical concerns such as the failure of crops or the death of livestock (Laurence, 1995: 216-218). Similarly, with the persecution of women, the concerns circled around the fact that babies and young children were being â€Å"victims† of maleficia, rather than the witch being a Devil-worshipper per se. Unsurprisingly, therefore, a large number of women who were accused of being witches were the lying-in maids for more privileged families, who looked after the newborns and had direct contact with them, as in the case of Anna Ebeler of Augsburg (Roper, 1991: 19). Roper (1991: 23) also points to how this may be a result of the association of femineity and maternity. Normal women were able to have children, yet witches w ere unable to, leading to a sense of envy that bred the feeling of hatred towards mothers and their babies. Strands Of Deviance One of the central themes occurring in the witch-hunts would have to be the fact that the society in early modern Europe had very little tolerance for those who were different from them. Jews and homosexuals were persecuted, and the society was predominantly peasant, poor and part of the Roman Catholic Church. Those who were different were frowned upon. Women generally married and had children at a young age, were uneducated and viewed as weak. Their primary purpose was to be subservient to their husbands and serve their families, keeping the household. This view of women can be contrasted to the stereotype of a witch, as mentioned above. Being old and unmarried, as well as being socially isolated, these alleged witches were evidently different from the general conception of a woman in society. Larner (1981:92) puts forward the idea that witches were persecuted not because they were women, but because they were â€Å"non-women† who did not fit into the societal view of a woman. While a typical woman was maternal, witches were unable to have children; where typical women stayed home at nights, witches flew to remote locations to join Sabbaths. This fit in with the elite conceptions that the reality in which witches lived in was essentially one that was an anti-society. Blà ©court (2000: 300) explains that God was a â€Å"guardian of social norms†, while the Devil was just the very opposite. These â€Å"non-women† were persecuted for disobeying the social norms, and some historians even argue that women accused other women of being witches because they felt threatened by an individual who did not conform to the male image of them (Larner, 1981: 102). The role of the Roman Church was also not to be ignored in the reinforcement of this stereotype. Women ha d an increased likelihood to practice love magic as compared to men (Blà ©court, 2000: 303), and since only priests of the Church could legally practice magic, they were more likely to be persecuted as a result. Remote Possibilities While the possible presence of a repressive patriarchy or a societal aversion to deviant behaviour have often been cited as the reasons behind the gender imbalance during the witch-hunts, there are a few other remote possibilities that will be mentioned in the passing. Scully (1995: 857-858) points to how Venetian witches could choose witchcraft as a career option as opposed to being married or forced into prostitution, and this could be an escape from a possibly malevolent life, thereby proving to be a popular alternative for women in the region at that time. In his paper, Goodare (1991: 291-292) argues that economic factors could have been one of the reasons for the witch-hunts. Since the people had fallen upon hard times, those dependent upon charity handouts were hostile to others who were their competition and these were mainly women. Another article by Ross (Ross, 1995: 333-337) draws an interesting correlation between the outbreak of syphilis in the 16th century and the perse cution of more women than men. He posits that women, being the symbols of fertility, could be shunned due to syphilis as they would be spreading the venereal disease. Further, much of the witchs behaviour, he says, could be attributed to the madness that is a symptom of the disease. While fascinating, these observations by historians seem to be unique suggestions that do not appear in the literature as main causes for the increased persecution of women. Conclusion To conclude, this report has outlined the stereotype of a witch and what perpetrated this stereotype throughout early modern Europe. It seems persuasive to argue that although there was a strong patriarchal society in those days, this culture did not amount to being misogynistic in nature. The stereotype of the witch that emerge during this period and that was adopted by most modern historians emphasise a few features of witches that generally seem to be a result of the lack of tolerance for social deviant behaviour, and simply reinforced time and again in a vicious cycle. The trend points to the fact that there are a variety of factors that resulted in more women being persecuted than men. Often, this phenomenon can only be attributed to the differences in the various societies in Europe, and the culture of the region or country. Ultimately, it can be concluded that a combination of factors led to more women being persecuted than men. References Anderson, Alan and Gordan, Raymond. 1978. ‘Witchcraft and the Status of Women The Case of England. The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 29, No. 2: 171-184. Barry, Jonathan, Hester, Marianne and Roberts, Gareth. 1999. Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief (Past and Present Publications). Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. de Blà ©court, Willem. 2000. ‘The Making of a Female Witch. Gender and History, Vol. 12, No. 2: 125-141. Goodare, Julian. 1998. ‘Women and the Witch-Hunt in Scotland. Social History, Vol. 23, No. 3: 288-308. Hufton, Olwen. 1983. ‘Women in History. Early Modern Europe. Past Present, No. 101: 125-141. Larner Christina. 1981. Enemies of God: The Witch-Hunt in Scotland. London: Chatto Windus. Larner, Christina. 1984. Witchcraft and Religion: The Politics of Popular Belief. New York: Basil Blackwell. Laurence, Anne. 1995. Women in Engliand, 1500-1760, A Social History. London: Weidenfeld Nicolson Illustrated. Levack, Brian. 1987. The Witch-hunt in Early Modern Europe. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Monter, Williams. 1997. ‘Toads and Eucharists: The Male Witches of Normandy, 1564-1660. French Historical Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 563-595. Ross, Eric B. 1995. ‘Syphilis, Misogyny, and Witchcraft in 16th-Century Europe. Current Anthropology, Vol. 36, No. 2: 333-337. Sawyer, Ronald C. 1989. ‘Strangely Handled in All Her Lyms: Witchcraft and Healing in Jacobean England. Journal of Social History, Vol. 22, No. 3: 461-485. Scully, Sally. 1995. ‘Marriage or a Career?: Witchcraft as an Alternative in Seventeenth-Century Venice. Journal of Social History, Vol. 28, No. 4: 857-876. Primary sources: Darst, David H. 1979. ‘Witchcraft in Spain: the Testimony of Martin de Castaà ±egas Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529). Kramer, Heinrich and Sprenger James. 1484. Malleus Maleficarum. Accessed 6 October 2009. Available at Scot, Reginald. 1584. The Discoverie of Witchcraft. Retrieved from Early English Books Online. The practice of harmful magic